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GEORGIA FORESTR' 



RECEIVED 

DEC. 1 2 1994 

DUCUMENTS 
UGA iimMW 



NATIVE TREES OF GEORGIA 



By 



G. Norman Bishop 

Professor of Forestry 

George Foster Peabody School of Forestry 

University of Georgia 



GEORGIA FORESTRY COMMISSION 

John W. Mixon 
Director 



Eighth Printing April, 1990 



FOREWARD 

This manual has been prepared in an effort to give 
to those interested in the trees of Georgia a means by 
which they may gain a more intimate knowledge of the 
tree species. Of about 250 species native to the state, 
only 92 are described here. These were chosen for their 
commercial importance, distribution over the state or 
because of some unusual characteristic. 

Since the manual is intended primarily for the use of 
the layman, technical terms have been omitted wherever 
possible; however, the scientific names of the trees and 
the families to which they belong, have been included. 
It might be explained that the species are grouped by 
families, the name of each occurring at the top of the 
page over the name of the first member of that family. 
Also, there is included in the text, a subdivision entitled 
KEY CHARACTERISTICS, the purpose of which is to 
give the reader, all in one group, the most outstanding 
features whereby he may more easily recognize the tree. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author wishes to express his appreciation to the 
Houghton Mifflin Company, publishers of Sargent's 
"Manual of the Trees of North America," for permis- 
sion to use the cuts of all trees appearing in this manual; 
to B.R. Stogsdill fro assistance in arranging the material; 
to W. C. Hammerle, former Acting Director of the State 
Division of Forestry, and to many others for helpful 
suggestions and criticisms. 

Of much assistance in the preparation of the manual 
was the information contained in several texts and 
manuals, among which were: Manual of the Trees of 
North America by C. S. Sargent; Trees of the South- 
eastern States by Coker and Totten; Textbook of 
Dendrology by Harlow and Harrar. 

In the Third Edition both common and scientific 
names were changed to conform to the Check List of 
Native and Naturalized Trees of the United States 
(including Alaska), Agriculture Handbook No. 41, 
Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 1953. 
Two exceptions to the above are: Carya carolinae- 
septentrionalis (Ashe) Eng. and Graebn, and Carya 
ovalis (Wangenh) Sarg. 



CONTENTS 



Ash, Green 95 

White 94 

Baldcypress 16 

Basswood, White 86 

Beech, American 36 

Birch, River 32 

Sweet 33 

Boxelder 84 

Buckeye, Painted 85 

Butternut 19 

Catalpa, Southern 96 

Cedar, Red 18 

White 17 

Cherry, Black 73 

Chestnut, American 37 

Chinkapin, Allegheny..... 38 

Cottonwood, Eastern 30 

Swamp 31 

Cucumbertree 63 

Dogwood, Flowering 90 

Dahoon 80 

Elm, American 57 

Slippery 58 

Winged 59 

Hackberry, Georgia 61 

Hawthorn 74 

Hemlock 15 

Hickory, Bitternut 28 

Carolina 23 

Mockernut 24 

Pignut 25 

Red 26 

Sand 27 

Shagbark 21 

Shellbark 22 

Holly, American 78 

Honey locust 75 

Hophornbeam, Eastern.. 35 

Hornbeam, American 34 

Locust, Black 76 

Magnolia, Fraser 66 

Southern 64 

Umbrella 65 

Maple, Chalk 81 

Florida 83 

Red 82 



Mulberry, Red 62 

Oak, Black 48 

Blackjack 54 

Bluejack 56 

Chestnut 42 

Georgia 55 

Laurel 51 

Live 44 

Northern Red 45 

Overcup 41 

Post 40 

Scarlet 52 

Shumard 47 

Southern Red 46 

Swamp Chestnut.. 43 

Turkey 53 

Water 50 

White 39 

Willow 49 

Pine, Eastern White 5 

Loblolly 8 

Longleaf 6 

Pitch 11 

Pond 12 

Shortleaf 9 

Slash : 7 

Spruce 13 

Table Mountain.... 14 

Virginia 10 

Persimmon 92 

Redbud, Eastern 77 

Sassafras 69 

Serviceberry, Downy 72 

Silverbell, Carolina 93 

Sourwood 91 

Sugarberry 60 

Sweetbay 67 

Sweetgum 70 

Sycamore, American 71 

Tupelo, Black 88 

Swamp 89 

Water 87 

Walnut, Black 20 

Willow, Black 29 

Yaupon 79 

Yellow-Poplar 68 



OTHER NATIVE TREES 

Alder, Hazel - Alnus serrulata (Ait.) Willd. 

Apple, Southern Crab - Malus angustifolia (Ait.) Michx. 

Sweet Crab - Malus coronaria (L.) Mill. 
Ash, Carolina - Fraxinus caroliniana Mill. 
Basswood, Carolina - Tilia caroliniana Mill. 

Florida - Tilia floridana Small 
Bayberry, Evergreen - Myrica heterophylla Raf. 

Southern - Myrica cerifera L. 
Blackshaw, Viburnum prunifolium L. 

Rusty - Viburnum rufidulum Raf. 
Buckeye, Yellow - Aeseulus octandra Marsh. 
Buckwheat-tree (Titi) - Cliftonia monophylla (Lam.) Britton 
Bumelia, Buckthorn - Bumelia lycioides (L.) Pers. 
Gum - Bumelia languinosa (Michx.) Pers. 
Tough - Bumelia tenax (L.) Willd. 
Cucumbertree, Yellow - Magnolia acuminata var. cordata 

(Michx.) Sarg. 
Cyrilla, Swamp - Cyrilla racemiflora L. 
Dahoon, Myrtle - Ilex myrtifolia Walt. 
Devilwood - Osmanthus americanus (L.) Benth 

and Hook 
Devil's- walkingstick-Aralia spinosa L. 
Dogwood, Alternate- leaf - Cornus alternifolia L. 

Stiffcornel - Cornus stricta Lam. 
Elliottia - Elliottia racemosa Muhl. 
Elm, September - Ulmas serotina Sarg. 
Fringetree - Chionanthus virginicus L. 
Hercules-club - Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L. 
Hickory, Water - Carya aquatica (Michx.) Nutt. 
Laurelcherry, Carolina - Prunus caroliniana (Mill.) Ait. 
Loblolly-bay - Gordonia lasianthus (L.) Ellis. 
Magnolia, Bigleaf - Magnolia macrophylla Michx. 
Pyramid - Magnolia pyramidata Bartr. 
Maple, Mountain - Acer spicatum Lam. 
Silver - Acer saccharinum L. 
Striped - Acer pensylvanicum L. 
Sugar - Acer saccharum Marsh. 
Mountain-ash, American - Sorbus americana Marsh. 
Mountain-laurel - Kalmia latifolia L. 
Oak, Arkansas - Quercus arkansana Sarg. 
Chapman - Quercus chapmanii Sarg. 
Cherrybark - Quercus falcata var. pagodaefolia Ell. 
Chinkapin - Quercus muehlenbergii Engelm. 
Durand - Quercus durandii Buckl. 
Myrtle - Quercus myrtifolia Willd. 
Oglethorpe - Quercus oglethorpensis Duncan. 
Sand Post - Quercus stellata var margaretta 
(Ashe) Sarg. 
Palmetto, Cabbage - Sabal palmetto (Walt.) Lodd. 
Pawpaw - Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal. 
Planertree - Planera aquatica Gmel. 
Plum, American - Prunus americana Marsh. 

Chickasaw - Prunus angustifolia Marsh. 
Flatwoods - Prunus umbellata Ell. 
Poison-sumac - Toxicodendron vernix (L.) Kuntze. 
Possumhaw - Ilex decidua Walt. 
Redbay - Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng. 
Rhododendron, Catawba - Rhododendron catawbiense (Michx.) 

Rosebay - Rhododendron maximum L. 
Soapberry, Florida - Sapindus marginatus (Willd.) 
Sparkleberry, Tree - Vaccinium arboreum Marsh. 
Stewartia, Mountain - Stewartia ovata (Cav.) Weatherby 
Sumac, Shinning - Rhus copallina L. 

Smooth - Rhus glabra L. 
Sweetleaf, Common - Symplocos tinctoria (L.) L'Her. 
Tupelo, Ogeechee - Nyssa ogeche Bartr. 
Waterlocust - Gleditsia aquatica Marsh. 
Willow, Coastal Plain - Salix caroliniana Michx. 
Florida - Salix floridana Chapm. 
Silky - Salix sericea Marsh. 
Witch-hazel -Hamameliswirginiana L. 



FAMILY PINACEAE 

EASTERN WHITE PINE 
(Northern White Pine) 
(Pin us strobus L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves or needles 3 to 5 inches long, 
bluish green on the upper surface, whitish below and 
occurring in bundles of 5 to a sheath. Fruit or cone 4 
to 8 inches long, cylindrical, with flat, usually gummy 
scales. The small, winged seed mature in September of 
the second year. Bark on young stems and branches, 
thin, smooth and greenish in color, becoming on old 
trunks 1 to 2 inches thick, separating into broad, flat 
ridges, covered with grayish brown scales. A tree, char- 
acterized by its slightly ascending branches, occurring 
in regular whorls; at maturity, often 80 or more feet in 
height with a straight trunk 2 to 3 feet in diameter. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves or needlesbluish- 
green on the upper surface, whitish below and occur- 
ring in bundles of 5 to a sheath; cones 4 to 8 inches 
long, cylindrical, with usually gummy flat scales; 
branches occurring in regular whorls. 

WOOD: Light, soft, not strong, usually straightgrained, 
light brown often tinged with red. 

USES: General construction, interior finish, patterns, 
caskets, clocks, cabinet making, matches and many 
other products; often used as an ornamental shade tree. 

DISTRIBUTION: Occurring throughout the mountains 
in the northern part of the state, usually in the cool, 
moist coves and valleys. 



LONGLEAFPINE 
(Pinus palustris Mill.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves or needles 10 to 18 inches long, 
in crowded clusters of 3 to the sheath; dark green 
in color. Fruit or cone maturing at the end of the 
second season, 6 to 10 inches long, slightly curved, 
dull brown, in falling, leaving a few of the basal scales 
attached to the twig. Bark light orange brown, separat- 
ing into large, papery scales. A long-lived tree often 
100 feet or more in height with a straight, slightly taper- 
ing trunk about 2 to 3 feet in diameter. (An outstanding 
feature inthe spring is the large, silvery white terminal 
bud). 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves or needles 10 to 18 
inches long, in crowded clusters of 3 to the sheath; 
cone 6 to 10 inches long, dull brown; buds silvery white. 

WOOD:Heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, light reddish 
yellow. Durable heartwood. 

USES: Strongest of the Southern yellow pines. Used 
in construction, for railroad ties, poles and piling, 
railroad cars, boats, pulp, etc. This tree is one of the 
two species which produce gum naval stores. 



DISTRIBUTION: Confined principally to the coastal 
plain but ranging inland on the western border of the 
state to the vicinity of Rome; forming open stands on 
dry, shady soils. The tree can grow on sites too dry and 
sterile for the other Southern yellow pines. 

6 



SLASH PINE 
(Pinus elliottii Engelm.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves or needles 8 to 12 Inches long, 
in clusters of 2, or more often, 3 to the sheath; dark 
green and thickly set on the branch. Fruit or cone 
3 to 6 inches long, brown at maturity and glossy. Scales 
armed with minute prickles. Bark rough and dark 
reddish brown on young trees and becoming orange- 
brown and broken into broad, flat scales on old trees. 
A tree often 80 to 100 feet in height with a tall 
tapering trunk 2 to 3 feet in diameter, terminating in 
a handsome, round-topped head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves or needles 8 to 12 
inches long in clusters of 2 or 3 to the sheath; cones 
3 to 6 inches long, brown, glossy. 

WOOD: Heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, rich, dark 
orange-colored heartwood and white sapwood, durable 
heartwood. 

USES: Railroad ties, general construction, poles and 
piling, boats, railroad cars, pulp and many other uses; 
also one of the two species which produce gum tur- 
pentine and rosin. 

DISTRIBUTION: Confined principally to the lower 
coastal plain, the chief habitat being low, moist sandy 
sites, however often thriving on the drier ridges common 
to its range. Common in plantations. 



LOBLOLLY PINE 
(Pin us taeda L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves or needles 6 to 9 inches long, 
slightly twisted, pale blue-gr.een and occurring in clu- 
sters of 3 to the sheath. Fruit or cone 2 to 6 inches 
long, light reddish brown at maturity; scales armed 
with short, stout prickles. Bark on young trees dark in 
color and deeply furrowed, becoming on old trees 
bright red-brown and divided into broad, flat ridges. 
A tree 100 feet in height with a trunk 2 to 5 feet in 
diameter. Perhaps the fastest growing southern pine. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves or needles pale 
blue-green, occurring in clusters of 3 to the sheath, 
grouped near the ends of the branch; bark on young 
trees dark, reddish brown or nearly black; cone scales 
armed with short, stout prickles. 

WOOD: Light brown heartwood with orange-colored to 
white sapwood. Mixed with slash, longleaf, shortleaf, and 
sold in the lumber trade as Southern yellow pine. 

USES: In general similar to those of the other southern 
pines, being used in construction, interior and exterior 
finish, pulp, etc. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found generally throughout the state 
with the exception of the higher mountains. Less 
plentiful in the coastal plain than in the Piedmont 
where it occurs in great abundance. Most common of the 
Southern yellow pines and often in plantations. 

8 



SHORTLEAF PINE 
(Pin us echinata Mill.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves or needles 3 to 5 inches long, 
dark yellow-green, and occurring in clusters of 2 or 
3 to the sheath. Fruit or cone V/z to IV* inches long, 
becoming dull brown at maturity; scales armed with 
short, sometimes deciduous, prickles. Bark broken 
into irregular plates covered with small, light cinnamon- 
red scales. A tree 80 to 100 feet high with a trunk 3 
to 4 feet in diameter, terminating in a short, pyramidal 
head of slender branches. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves or needles 3 to 5 
inches long, in clusters of 2 to 3 to the sheath; cone 
Vh to 214 inches long; scales armed with short, some- 
times deciduous prickles. 

WOOD: Variable, heavy, hard, strong, usually coarse- 
grained, orange-colored heartwood with cream-colored 
sapwood. 

USES: Similar to those of the other southern pines, 
being used for construction, interior finish, pulp, etc. 

DISTRIBUTION: Occurs throughout the state with the 
exception of a few isolated areas in the coastal plain. 
Perhaps more abundant on heavy clay soils in the 
upper piedmont. 

9 



VIRGINIA PINE 
(Pin us virginiana Mill.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves or needles VA to 3 inches long, 
gray-green, occurring in bundles of 2 to the sheath. 
Fruit or cone V/2 to 2 1 / 2 inches long, slender, slightly 
curved, dark red-brown and slightly glossy; the flat 
scales armed with short, often stout, prickles. Bark on 
young branches and upper trunk scaly but nearly 
smooth, becoming somewhat roughened on older trunks; 
reddish brown in color. A tree usually not more than 
30 to 40 feet high with short trunk seldom exceeding 
18 inches in diameter, terminating in a pyramidal 
head, the branches of which occur in remote whorls. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves or needles shorter 
than any other native pine; bark almost smooth on 
upper trunk and branches; dead branches persistent 
for many years. 

WOOD: Knotty, brittle, coarse-grained, fairly durable, 
light orange-colored heartwood with nearly white sap- 
wood. Weaker than loblolly or shortleaf. 

USES: Pulp, and occasionally manufactured into lumber 
which is graded separately from other Southern yellow 
pines. 

DISTRIBUTION: Restricted tothe mountains and up- 
per piedmont; found as far south as Clarke and Colum- 
bia counties. 



10 



PITCH PINE 
(Pinus rigida Mill.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves or needles 3 to 5 inches long, 
dark yellow-green, twisted, standing stiffly at right 
angles to the branch and occurring in clusters of 3 
to the sheath. Fruit or cone 1 to 3 1 /a inches long, 
light brown at maturity, scales armed with rigid prick- 
les. Bark on young trees broken into dark red-brown 
scales, becoming on old trunks divided into broad, 
flat, brownish yellow ridges. A tree 50 to 60, rarely 
100 feet high with a short trunk sometimes attaining 
3 feet in diameter, terminating in a thick, round- 
topped head, often irregular with contorted branches. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves or needles standing 
stiffly at right angles to the branch, occurring in 
clusters of 3 to the sheath; bark at first dark and 
very scaly, later dividing into broad, flat, brownish 
yellow ridges. 

WOOD: Light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained 
durable, heartwood light brown or red, thick, yellow 
or white sapwood. 

USES: Does not produce a good quality of lumber, 
its chief uses being for railroad ties, mine props, 
charcoal, fuel, and occasionally for lumber. 

DISTRIBUTION: Confined principally to the moun- 
tains of the northeastern part of the state, generally 
occurring on dry ridges and slopes but occasionally 
found in the moist, fertile coves. 

11 



POND PINE 
(Pinus serotina Michx.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves or needles 6 to 8 inches long, 
dark yellow-green, occurring in bundles of three or 
occasionally four to a sheath. Fruit or cone 2 to 2 1 / 2 
inches long, egg-shaped and light yellow-brown at 
maturity; scales armed with minute, often deciduous 
prickles. Bark dark red-brown, divided into small plates 
separating on the surface into thin scales. A tree 40 
to 70 feet high and seldom over 2 feet in diameter, 
the short trunk terminating in an open round-topped 
head of usually contorted branches and slender branch- 
lets which are at first dark green, turning gradually 
orange and eventually nearly black in color. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Glossy egg-shaped cone be- 
coming somewhat disk-shaped when open; needles 
often grow in mats along main branches and trunk. 

WOOD: Very resinous, heavy, soft, brittle, coarse- 
grained; dark orange-colored heartwood and pale yellow 
sapwood. 

USES: Pulp, and occasionally for lumber which is 
grade marked seperately from other Southern yellow 
pines. 

DISTRIBUTION: Restricted to the "ponds" and 
poorly drained swamp areas of the coastal plain. 

12 



SPRUCE PINE 
(Pin us glabra Walt) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves or needles VA to 3 inches long, 
soft, slender, dark green, occurring in bundles of 2 
to the sheath. Fruit or cone % to 2 inches long, 
somewhat egg-shaped, becoming reddish brown and 
slightly glossy at maturity; scales thin and armed 
with minute prickles. Bark on young trees and upper 
trunk smooth and pale gray, becoming on old trunks 
slightly divided into flat ridges and much darker. A 
tree usually 80 to 100 feet high with a trunk 2 to 3 
feet in diameter, terminating in a narrow, open head 
composed of comparatively small, horizontal branches. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves or needles dark 
green; bark unusually smooth somewhat resembling 
that of many of the hardwoods and a general appear- 
ance much like the white pine; cones in general, 
smaller than any other native pine. 

WOOD: Light, soft, brittle, coarse-grained, not very 
strong, warps easily when sawed into lumber; light 
brown heartwood with white sapwood. 

USES: Pulp, and occasionally manufactured into 
lumber which is grade marked seperately from other 
Southern yellow pines. 

DISTRIBUTION: Restricted to the coastal plain, oc- 
curring on wet, sandy soils principally along stream 
banks. Seldom found in pure stands but generally 
associated with swamp hardwoods. 

13 



TABLE MOUNTAIN PINE 
(Pinus pungens Lambert) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves or needles V/ 2 to 3 inches long, 
stout, usually twisted, dark blue-green, occurring in 
bundles of 2 or rarely 3 to the sheath. Fruit or cone 
2 1 /a to 3 inches long, somewhat egg-shaped but lopsided 
near the base, occurring in clusters usually of 3 or 4 
and becoming light brown and glossy at maturity; 
often remaining on the tree unopened for several 
years; scales armed with stout, hooked spines. Bark 
on young branches and upper trunk dark brown and 
broken into thin, loose scales, on old trunks, broken 
into irregular shaped plates covered with dark brown 
scales tinged with red. A tree seldom more than 30 
to 40 feet high with a short trunk 114 to 2 feet in 
diameter, terminating in a flat-topped and often irregu- 
lar head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Cones lopsided at the base, 
glossy, scales armed with stout, curved spines. The 
short, thick trunk often clothed to the ground with 
horizontal branches. 

WOOD: Soft, light, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, 
light brown with thick, white sapwood. 

USES: Sometimes cut for rough lumber. 

DISTRIBUTION: Restricted to the mountains where 
it occurs as a scattered tree on the drier slopes and 
ridges. 

14 



HEMLOCK 
(Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves or needles 1/3 to 2/3 inch long, 
flat, oblong, dark green and shiny above, whitish be- 
low; occurring in a spiral but appearing to be 2- 
ranked on each side of the twig. Fruit or cone V2 to 
% inch long, egg-shaped, on slender stalks often % 
inch long; scales thin and almost as wide as long, 
light brown in color. Bark deeply divided into narrow 
ridges covered with thick scales, cinnamon-red to 
dark gray in color. A tree 60 to 100 feet high with a 
trunk 2 to 4 feet in diameter, conspicuously tapering 
into a pyramidal head, composed of long, slender, 
horizontal or often drooping branches. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves flat, oblong, appear- 
ing as 2 ranks and forming a flattened spray; cones 
V2 to % inches long; pyramidal crown with usually 
graceful, drooping branches. 

WOOD: Light, soft, not strong, brittle, coarse-grained, 
splinters easily, not durable, light brown tinged with 
red. 

USES: Lumber, outside finish for buildings, pulp; 
bark formerly a source of tannin. 

DISTRIBUTION: Restricted to the mountains where 
it occurs along streams and on the more fertile slopes. 



15 



FAMILY TAXODIACEAE 

BALDCYPRESS 
(Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves or needles 1 / 2 to % inch long, 
flat and spreading, feather-like in one plane on short, 
slender branches that fall with the leaves in the 
autumn. Fruit or cone nearly spherical or sometimes 
slightly egg-shaped, wrinkled, about 1 inch in diameter. 
Bark divided into broad, flat ridges, separating on the 
surface into long, thin, fibrous scales, light cinnamon- 
red in color. A tree sometimes 150 feet high with a 
gradually tapering trunk generally 4 to 5 feet in di- 
ameter above the abruptly enlarged base, terminating 
in a spreading, rounded crown. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Feather-like arrangement 
of the leaves, branches deciduous, cone small and 
round; bark fibrous, cinnamon-red; presence of cone- 
shaped knees around the base of the trunk. 

WOOD: Light, soft, not strong, very brittle, easily 
worked, straight-grained, varying in color from pale 
brown to nearly black with a somewhat pungent 
odor. Old growth heartwood very durable. 

USES: General construction, boats, fence posts, siding 
crossties, shingles, poles, piling, tanks, silos, coffins, 
horticultural mulch. 

DISTRIBUTION: Principally in swamps and ponds 
throughout most of the coastal plain, often replaced 
by a somewhat smaller species, Pond Cypress, (Tax- 
odium ascendens.) 



16 



FAMILY CUPRESSACEAE 

WHITE CEDAR 
(Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) B.S.P.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves minute, scale-like, overlapping, 
occurring in 4 ranks, bluish green in color and entirely 
covering the ends of the slender, drooping twigs. Fruit 
or cone small, dry, about the size of a pea and 
maturing the first year, becoming dark, red-brown in 
color. Bark light reddish brown and dividing into 
narrow, flat ridges often twisted spirally around the 
stem, separating on the surface into loose scales. A 
tree 70 to 80 feet high with a trunk 2 to 4 feet in 
diameter, terminating in a narrow, spire-like head. 
Branchlets occurring in 2 flattened ranks disposed in 
an open, fan-shaped spray. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves minute, scale-like, 
enveloping the ends of the twigs, branchlets compressed, 
2-ranked forming an open fan-shaped spray; cones 
tiny, spherical. 

WOOD: Light, soft, close-grained, durable in contact 
with the soil, slightly fragrant, light brown tinged 
with buff and red. 

USES: Fence posts, barrels, shingles, poles, boats and 
canoes, and occasionally for interior finish. 

DISTRIBUTION: A_ swamp species restricted to the 
coastal plain where it occurs along the Savannah River 
below Augusta, in Talbot and adjoining counties and 
sparingly along the extreme southern edge of the 
state. 

17 



RED CEDAR 
(Juniper us virginiana L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves of two kinds, both being found 
on the same tree, usually opposite, scale-like, about 
1/16 inch long, dark bluish green in color, but on 
young plants and vigorous branches % to % inches 
long, long pointed, spreading, light yellow-green in 
color. Fruit berry-like % to 1/3 inch in diameter, at 
maturity dark blue in color. Bark light brown tinged 
with red and separating into long, narrow, fibrous 
scales. A tree 40 to 50, rarely 100, feet high with a 
trunk 2 to 3 feet in diameter, often swollen at the 
base, terminating in a narrow, compact, pyramidal 
head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves minute, scale-like or 
spreading; fruit small, berry-like, dark blue; bark light 
brown, fibrous; crown compact, pyramidal. 

WOOD: Light, close-grained, brittle, dull, purplish red 
with thin, nearly white sapwood, easily worked, very 
fragrant. Heartwood durable. 

USES: Fence posts, pencils, chests, wooden pails, 
interior finish, pet bedding, closet lining, novelties. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found to some extent throughout 
the state but rare in the coastal plain except near the 
sea; especially abundant on the limestone ridges in 
northwest Georgia. 

18 



FAMILY JUGLANDACEAE 

BUTTERNUT 
(Juglans cinerea L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, com- 
pound, 15 to 30 inches long, 11 to 17 oblong, sharp- 
pointed, finely toothed leaflets, yellow-green, slightly 
hairy above, pale and hairy below; leaf stalks and 
twigs hairy and sticky. Fruit occurring in clusters of 3 
to 5; a nut enclosed in an oblong, somewhat pointed, 
yellowish green hull about 2 inches long, covered with 
rusty, clammy, sticky, hairs; shell of nut rough and 
grooved; kernel oily, edible. Bark on young stems 
and branches smooth and light gray, on old trunks 
thickened, divided into broad ridges and darker in 
color. A tree 50 to 60 feet high with a trunk seldom 
exceeding 2 feet in diameter, sometimes free of branches 
for half its height but more often divided near the 
ground into many stout, horizontal limbs, forming a 
broad, round-topped head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Always an odd leaflet at 
the end of the leaf; a velvety collar just above the scars 
left by last year's leaves; pith dark brown, chambered. 

WOOD: Soft, light, weak, smooth-grained, medium 
textured, light brown with thin light colored sapwood. 

USES: Interior finish, furniture and cabinet making. 

DISTRIBUTION: Occurring only in the moist coves of 
the mountains and probably no farther south than 
Mountain City, Georgia. 

19 



BLACK WALNUT 
(Juglans nigra L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, com- 
pound, 12 to 24 inches long with 15 to 23 leaflets 
about 3 inches long, long-pointed, and toothed on the 
margin except at the rounded, often unequal base; 
bright yellow-green, shiny and smooth above, hairy - 
below. Fruit spherical, light yellow-green, 1 1 / 2 to 2 
inches in diameter with a thick hull; nut oval or ob- 
long 1 1/8 to 1Ya inches in diameter, dark brown, 
much roughened by ridges on the surface; kernel 
edible. Bark dark brown to almost black and divided 
into broad, rounded ridges. A tree often 100 feet high 
with a trunk 2 to 3 feet in diameter often clear of 
branches for half its height, terminating in a narrow, 
round-topped head of upright branches. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Terminal leaflet usually 
dies before maturity; pith light brown, chambered; bark 
dark to almost black. 

WOOD: Hard, heavy, strong, very durable in contact 
with the soil, rich dark brown with thin, light-colored 
sapwood. 

USES: Has a high technical value and is used for 
furniture, interior finish, gun stocks, airplane pro- 
pellors, caskets, pianos, etc. 

DISTRIBUTION: A scattered tree found usually on 
fertile soils and occurs generally in the piedmont and 
mountain region, though found sparingly along the 
coast. 



20 



SHAGBARK HICKORY 
(Carya ovata (Mill.) K. Koch.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, com- 
pound, 10 to 17 inches long with 5 or sometimes 7 
ovate leaflets, the terminal one being 5 to 7 inches 
long and 2 to 3 inches wide and larger than the 
laterals, margins toothed; dark yellow-green and smooth 
above, paler and hairy below; petiole or stem hairy. 
Fruit almost spherical, 1 to 2!4 inches long, hull 1/8 
to % inch thick; nut 4-sided, usually flattened with a 
thin shell; kernel sweet. Bark gray, separating into 
large flakes, often a foot or more long and 6 to 8 
inches wide, shaggy in appearance. A tree 70 to 80 
and occasionally 100 feet high with a trunk 1 to 3 
feet in diameter, terminating in a narrow head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Bark shaggy, leaves large, 
hairy below, hull thick, shell thin. 

WOOD: Hard, heavy, very strong, tough, and especially 
resistant to sudden shocks, light brown with nearly 
white sapwood. 

USES: Hammer and axe handles, automobile wheel 
spokes, wagons, agricultural implements, fuel, especially 
useful in smoking meat. 

DISTRIBUTION: Occurring in the low hills and along 
streams and swamps, in fertile soils principally in 
southwest and north Georgia. 

21 



SHELLBARK HICKORY 

(Bigleaf Shagbark Hickory) 

(Carya laciniosa (Michx.f.) Loud.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, leaves 
15 to 22 inches long, compound, with 5 to 9 ovate 
leaflets, those near the tip much larger than the others, 
margins toothed; dark green, shiny and smooth above, 
pale yellow-green or brown and hairy below. Fruit 
spherical or egg-shaped, light orange colored or dark 
chestnut brown, 1% to 2 1 / 2 inches long, the husk % to 
1/3 inch thick; nut flattened, light yellow to reddish 
brown, with a shell sometimes % inch thick. Bark 
light gray, separating into broad, thick plates, giving 
the tree a shaggy appearance. A tree 80 to 100 feet 
high with a trunk 2 to 3 feet in diameter, terminating in 
a narrow, oblong head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves 15 to 22 inches 
long, hairy below; petioles or leaf stems remaining on 
the branches for several years; fruit large with a thick 
husk and shell; bark shaggy. 

WOOD: Heavy, hard, strong, tough, close-grained, dark 
brown. 

USES: Similar to those of the other hickories. The 
large nuts are edible. 

DISTRIBUTION: Typical of rich bottom lands which 
are flooded periodically, being found in this state 
only in the eastern piedmont. (Oglethorpe and Wilkes 
counties.) 



22 



CAROLINA HICKORY 
(Southern Shagbark Hickory) 
(Carya carol inae-septentrional is (Ashe.) 
Engl, and Graebn.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 7 to 9 
inches long, compound with usually 5 slender, long, 
pointed leaflets, the upper three larger than the lower 
pair, margins toothed; dark green and smooth above, 
pale yellow-green, shiny and smooth below; petioles 
or stems smooth. Fruit dark, red-brown, broader than 
long, % to 1 1 / 2 inches wide, the husk 1/8 to 3/8 
inch thick, splitting freely at the base; nut egg- 
shaped, white or pale brown, with a thin shell. Bark 
light gray, separating into thick plates giving the 
tree a shaggy appearance. A tree 60 to 80 feet high 
with a trunk 2 to 3 feet in diameter, the short, small 
branches forming a narrow, oblong head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaflets 5, narrow, smooth; 
petioles smooth; fruit small with a thick husk and a 
thin-shelled nut; bark shaggy. 

WOOD: Hard, strong, tough, light, reddish brown. 

USES: Same as for the other hickories. The nuts 
are of good quality and are edible. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found usually in low, flat woods and 
river bottoms in the eastern piedmont and mountains. 



23 



MOCKERNUT HICKORY 
(Carya tomentosa Nutt.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, com- 
pound, 8 to 12 inches long, with 7 to 9 (rarely 5) 
fragrant leaflets, the terminal one being 4 to 6 inches 
long and 2 to 4 inches wide and larger than the later- 
als, margins toothed; dark yellow-green and shiny above, 
pale yellow-green to orange-brown and hairy below; 
petiole of stem hairy. Fruit oval or nearly round, VA 
to 2 inches long with a hull about 1/8 inch thick, 
dark red-brown, splitting nearly to the base when ripe- 
nut 4 ridged, light reddish brown with a thick, hard 
shell; kernel sweet. Bark dark, firm, close, with low, 
rounded, interlaced ridges and shallow furrows. A tree 
seldom reaching a height of 100 feet with a trunk 
occasionally 3 feet in diameter, terminating in a narrow, 
or sometimes broad, rounded head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Petioles or leaf stems hairy, 
winter buds large (V2 to % inch long) and hairy; 
nut 4-ridged with a thin hull splitting rather freely. 

WOOD: Very heavy, hard, tough, strong, close-grained, 
flexible; thick, nearly white sapwood. 

USES: Similar to those of shagbark hickory. 

DISTRIBUTION: Common on well drained soils 
throughout the state. 



24 



PIGNUT HICKORY 
(Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, com- 
pound, 8 to 12 inches long, with 5 or rarely 7 slender 
leaflets, the terminal one usually broader than the 
laterals, margins toothed; yellow-green and smooth 
above, smooth below; petiole or stem smooth. Fruit 
slightly flattened, egg-shaped to nearly spherical, usually 
with a neck at the base, variable in size, about 1 inch 
long, hull thin (1/16 inch) opening partially or not 
at all; nut spherical or flattened, not ridged, shell 
thick or thin. Bark light gray, close with rounded 
ridges. A tree 60 to 90 feet high with a trunk 2 to 2 1 / 2 
feet in diameter, with small, spreading, often drooping 
branches forming a tall, narrow head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Petioles or leaf stems 
smooth, winter buds small (1/3 to % inch long), 
smooth, fruit small, nut smooth with thin hull not 
splitting freely. 

WOOD: Heavy, hard, strong, tough, flexible, light 
or dark brown with thick, lighter colored sapwood. 

USES: Similar to those of the other hickories including 
tool handles, agricultural implements, and fuel. 

DISTRIBUTION: Occurs plentifully on poor soils, 
usually on uplands, plentiful in the middle section 
of the state, frequently in the coastal plain and oc- 
casionally in the mountains. 

25 



RED HICKORY (False Pignut Hickory) 
(Carya oval is (Wang) Sarg.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 8 to 10 
inches long, compound with 5 to 7 ovate to narrow 
leaflets, margins toothed; dark green and smooth above 
and below, petioles or stems smooth. Fruit 1 to 1% 
inches long, oval, with a thin husk splitting freely to 
the base; nut brownish white, usually smooth. Bark 
pale gray, separating into small, plate-like scales, having 
a slightly shaggy appearance. A tree 80 to 100 feet high 
with a trunk 2 to 3 feet in diameter, terminating in a 
narrow, pyramidal head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves similar to pignut 
hickory; fruit small (1 to 1% inches long), with a 
thin husk (1/12 to 1/10 inch thick), splitting freely 
to the base; bark slightly shaggy. 

WOOD: Heavy, hard, tough, flexible, brown. 

USES: Tool handles, agricultural implements, fuel. 

•DISTRIBUTION: Found on fertile soils, usually on 
hillsides in the central part of the state. 

26 



SAND HICKORY (Pale Hickory) 
(Carya pallida (Ashe) Engl, and Graebn.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 7 to 15 
inches long, compound with 7 to 9 slender, long- 
pointed leaflets, margins toothed; light green, smooth 
and shiny above, pale or silvery and hairy below; 
petioles or stems hairy. Fruit somewhat pear-shaped, 
34 to 1/4 inches long, hairy and covered with yellow 
scales; husk splitting slowly toward the base; nut white 
and slightly ridged. Bark of vigorous trees pale and 
slightly ridged and with poorer growth, dark gray or 
almost black and deeply furrowed. A tree occasionally 
100 feet high with a trunk 2 to 3 feet in diameter, 
but usually considerably smaller and with a dense 
crown. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaflets slender and long- 
pointed, silvery and hairy below; petioles hairy; fruit* 
pear-shaped, hairy and covered with yellow scales. 

WOOD: Brown with nearly white sapwood. 

USES: Of little use except for fuel. 

DISTRIBUTION: Usually found on sandy soil and 

occurring sparingly in many parts of the state but 

more abundant in the piedmont. 

27 



BITTERNUT HICKORY 
(Carya cordiformis (Wang.) K. Koch.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, com- 
pound, 6 to 10 inches long with 7 to 9 slender, long- 
pointed leaflets, margins toothed except at the base- 
dark green and smooth, paler and hairy below; petioles 
or stems slender, hairy. Fruit cylindric or slightly 
flattened, % to VA inches long, 4-winged at the end 
with a thin, hairy hull, coated with small, yellow scales; 
nut oblong and flattened, gray or light reddish brown, 
with a thin brittle shell; kernel bitter. Bark light brown, 
tinged with red, close, firm, at first smooth but 
eventually having shallow furrows with narrow, inter- 
laced ridges, slightly scaly on the surface. A tree often 
100 feet high with a trunk 2 to 3 feet in diameter, 
terminating in a broad, handsome head composed of 
stout, spreading branches. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Hull of fruit winged, nut 
with a thin, brittle shell and bitter kernel; winter 
buds flat, sulphur yellow, hairy. 

WOOD: Heavy, hard, strong, tough, close-grained, thick, 
dark brown. 

USES: Similar to those of the other hickories. 

DISTRIBUTION: Common in the mountain valleys and 
along streams and swamps in the piedmont; rare in 
the coastal plain. 

28 



FAMILY SALICACEAE 

BLACK WILLOW 
(Salix nigra Marsh.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 3 to 6 
inches long, 1/8 to % inch wide, somewhat curved 
with muchly tapered tip and finely toothed margins; 
smooth and shiny on both sides, bright green above 
and slightly paler green below. Fruit a small pod 
about 1/8 inch long, light reddish brown, bearing 
minute seeds furnished with long, silky down. Bark 
variable in color from light brown tinged with orange 
to dark brown or nearly black, deeply divided into 
broad, flat ridges, scaly, and on old trunks shaggy on 
the surface. A tree usually about 30 to 40 feet high 
often branching into several trunks near the ground; 
branches upright and forming a broad, irregular, open 
head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves long, narrow, taper- 
ing, with toothed margins, pale green and shiny on 
both sides. 

WOOD: Soft, light, weak, reddish brown with thin, 
nearly white sapwood, does not warp, check or splinter. 

USES: Artificial limbs, furniture, cellar and barn floors, 
toys, charcoal, sometimes manufactured into lumber. 

DISTRIBUTION: A stream bank species occurring to 
some extent throughout the state but becoming scarcer 
in the coastal plain and especially near the coast. 

29 



EASTERN COTTONWOOD 
(Populus deltoides Bartr.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 3 to 5 
inches long and broad, somewhat triangular to heart- 
shaped with rounded teeth on the margin; light green, 
smooth and shiny above, paler and smooth below; 
stem or petiole flattened, yellow tinged with red, 214 
to 3 1 / 2 inches long. Fruit a small, pointed pod with 
silky, hairy seed arranged in clusters often 8 to 12 
inches in length, borne only on female trees. Bark 
smooth, on young branches light yellow tinged with 
green, on old trunks ashy gray and divided into broad, 
rounded ridges, scaly on the surface. A tree 50 to 75 
and rarely 90 feet high with a trunk 2 to 3 feet in 
diameter but sometimes larger, terminating in a grace- 
ful, open head or often on young trees, a symmetrical, 
pyramidal head. Young trees can grow extremely fast. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves triangular, smooth 
and shiny above, smooth below, having a distinct 
balsamic odor; petiole or stem reddish yellow, flatened, 
winter buds very resinous. 

WOOD: Dark brown with thick, nearly white sapwood; 
difficult to season; warps badly in drying. 

USES: Furniture, box boards, slack cooperage, pulp. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found usually along the streams 
throughout the state but nowhere abundant. 

30 



SWAMP COTTONWOOD 
(Populus heterophylla LJ 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous In autumn, 4 to 7 
inches long, 3 to 6 inches wide, broadly ovate with 
a heart-shaped base, margin toothed, smooth on the 
upper surface, hairy or smooth on the lower surface; 
petiole or stem of leaf round, 2 1 /2 to 3 1 /2 inches long. 
Fruit a small capsule ripening before the full growth 
of the leaves, egg-shaped, dark red-brown at maturity. 
Bark on young trunks light greenish yellow, divided 
into flat ridges covered by flake-like scales on the 
surface; on old trunks broken into long, narrow plates 
attached only at the middle, light brown tinged with 
red. A tree 80 to 90 feet high with a trunk 2 to 3 feet 
in diameter, terminating in a comparatively narrow, 
round-topped head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves large, heart-shaped, 
stems or petioles round (all of the other southern 
poplars have flattened petioles). 

WOOD: Light, soft, weak, even-grained, light brown 
with white sapwood. 

USES: Low grade lumber, box boards, crates, pulp. 

DISTRIBUTION: Restricted to deep river swamps near, 
the coast. 



31 



FAMILY BETULACEAE 

RIVER BIRCH 
(Be tula nigra L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, V/ 2 to 3 
inches long, oval or somewhat triangular, with broad 
bases and doubly-toothed margins, dark green and 
smooth above, light green and smooth below except 
on the veins. Fruit cone-shaped, about 1 inch long 
and densely crowded with small, winged nutlets ripening 
in the late spring. Bark reddish brown, peeling off in 
thin, papery, curling layers. A tree 70 to 80 feet high 
with a trunk 2 to 3 feet in diameter, dividing 15 to 20 
feet above the ground into several arching branches, 
forming a narrow, irregular head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Bark reddish brown, peel- 
ing off in thin, curling, papery layers. 

WOOD: Rather hard, close-grained, light, strong, light 
brown with pale sapwood. 

USES: Furniture, wooden ware, turnery, fuel. 

DISTRIBUTION: A common stream bank tree of the 
lower mountains and piedmont, less common in the 
coastal plain. 

32 



SWEET BIRCH 
(Betula lenta L) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 2 1 / 2 to 
6 inches long, 1!4 to 3 inches wide, oval to oblong, 
tapering to a sharp point, with a slightly heartshaped 
or rounded base, margins sharply toothed; dark green 
and smooth above, light yellow-green and hairy on 
the veins below. Fruit cone-shaped, 1 to V/2 inches 
long, about 1 / 2 inch thick, without hairs, enclosing 
the small, winged nuts. Bark on young stems and 
and branches smooth, shiny, dark brown, tinged with 
red, becoming on old trunks, dull, deeply furrowed 
and broken into large, irregular, scaly plates. A tree 
70 to 80 feet high with a trunk 3 to 6 feet in diameter, 
terminating in a narrow, round-topped head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Twigs with a wintergreen 
odor; bark dark, cherry-like, not papery; cone not 
hairy. 

WOOD: Strong, hard, dark in color, heavy, dark 
brown tinged with red, with light brown or yellow 
sap wood. 

USES: As a substitute for mahogany in the manu- 
facture of furniture, wooden ware, fuel; oil of winter- 
green may be distilled from the bark and is sold 
commercially. 

DISTRIBUTION: Confined mostly to cool, rich soils 
and found only in the mountains. 

33 



AMERICAN HORNBEAM (Blue Beech) 
(Carpi nus carol in iana Walt.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 2 to 4 
inches long, 1 to 1% inches wide, oval, often slightly 
curved, long-pointed; margins doubly toothed, pale, 
dull, blue-green and smooth above, light yellow-green, 
smooth or hairy below. Fruit a cluster of small nuts 
each about 1/3 inch long and attached to the base of 
a leaf-like bract. Bark dark gray, smooth; the trunk 
having a ridged or muscular appearance. A tree usually 
not more than 20 to 30 feet high with a trunk some- 
times 10 inches in diameter, terminating in a spreading, 
bushy head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Bark dark gray, smooth; 
trunk muscular; fruit a cluster of small nuts each 
attached to the base of a leaf-like bract. 

WOOD: Very hard, light brown with thick, nearly 
white sapwood. 

USES: Mallets, wedges, cogs, levers. 

DISTRIBUTION: Common along streams and fertile 

lowlands in the piedmont and mountains. In the 

coastal plain less common and retiring to the deeper 
swamps. 

34 



EASTERN HOPHORNBEAM (Hop Hornbeam) 
(Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 2 1 / 2 to 
4 1 / 2 inches long, 1!4 to 2 inches wide, oval or oblong, 
pointed; rounded, heart-shaped or wedge-shaped base, 
margins sharply toothed; dark, dull, yellow-green and 
smooth or slightly hairy above, light yellow-green and 
hairy on the veins below; petiole or stem about % inch 
long, hairy. Fruit a drooping cluster resembling a head 
of hops, covering of each fruit coated with stiff hairs 
at the tip. Bark broken into thick, narrow, oblong, close 
fitting, light brown scales, slightly tinged with red. A 
tree not usually more than 20 to 30 feet high with a 
trunk 18 to 20 inches in diameter, terminating in a 
broad, round-topped head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Bark brown, scaly or shred- 
dy; covering of each fruit sac-like, and coated with 
stiff hairs at the tip. 

WOOD: Strong, hard, tough, durable, light brown 
tinged with red or often nearly white with thick, pale 
sapwood. 

USES: Mallets, wedges, cogs, levers. 

DISTRIBUTION: Occurring generally along the edges 
of low grounds and stream banks, but sometimes on 
uplands, throughout the piedmont and mountains, 
rare in the coastal plain. 



35 



FAMILY FAGACEAE 

AMERICAN BEECH 
(Fagus grand i 'fo/ia Ehrh.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 2 1 / 2 to 5 
inches long, 1 to 3 inches wide, oblong or oval, long- 
pointed; margins coarsely toothed; dark green and 
smooth above, light green and shiny below with hairs 
along the mid-rib and conspicuous veins. Fruit a shiny, 
light brown, angular nut, 1 to 2 enclosed in a bur. 
Bark gray, smooth (often marked with initials). A 
tree sometimes 80 feet high with a short trunk 3 to 4 
feet in diameter, terminating in a broad, compact, 
round-topped head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves shiny below with 
conspicuous, parallel veins; bark smooth; winter buds 
slender, % to 1 inch long; fruit enclosed in a bur. 

WOOD: Hard, heavy, strong, tough, difficult to season, 
not durable in contact with the soil, light brownish 
red. Georgia beech is often too limby and defective 
for products. 

USES: Flooring, furniture, veneer, interior finish, 
clothes pins, wooden ware, toys, fuel. Makes a beau- 
tiful, long-lived tree for f lawns. 

DISTRIBUTION: Restricted to moist soils, usually 
along streams and found throughout the state. 

36 



AMERICAN CHESTNUT 
(Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 6 to 8 
inches long, about 2 inches wide, oblong, tapering, long- 
pointed; margins coarsely toothed, teeth armed with 
bristles; dark, dull, yellow-green and smooth above, light 
green and shiny below; hairy about the mid-rib veins. 
Fruit a shiny, brown, angular nut, 2 or 3 being borne in 
spiny bur. Bark on young trees smooth, shiny, reddish 
bronze, on old trees broken by shallow fissures into long 
flat, gray ridges. A tree 70 to 80 feet high with a trunk 4 
to 5 feet in diameter, tall and slender in the forest, short 
and thick in the open and dividing close to the ground 
into several stout limbs, forming a broad, rounded head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves long (6 to 8 inches), 
margins coarsely toothed, teeth bristle-tipped; fruit a 
shiny nut, 2 or 3 being borne in a shiny bur, 2 to 2 1 /2 
inches in diameter; twigs not hairy. 

WOOD: Light, soft, coarse-grained, easily worked, dur- 
able, reddish brown. 

USES: Formerly used for telephone poles, posts, inter- 
ior finish, plywood, furniture, caskets. The wood con- 
tains 4 to 10 percent tannin and was used in that 
industry. Lumber from dead trees now used for panel- 
ing, picture frames, novelties. 

DISTRIBUTION: Restricted to the piedmont and 
mountains where it originally occurred in abundance. 
The chestnut blight, a bark disease has killed almost 
all trees and the species survives mainly as short lived 
root sprouts. 

37 



ALLEGHENY CHINKAPIN 
(Casta nea pumila Mill.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 3 to 6 
inches long, VA to 2 inches wide, oblong, tapering, and 
usually slightly curved; margins coarsely toothed; bright 
green and smooth above, whitish and densely hairy be- 
low or sometimes nearly smooth. Fruit a small reddish 
brown nut up to % inch long enclosed in a small, spiny 
bur. Bark light brown tinged with red, slightly furrowed 
and broken on the surface into loose, plate-like scales. A 
tree rarely more than 20 feet high with a trunk 6 to 8 
inches in diameter, terminating in a round-topped head 
composed of slender, spreading branches. Sometimes 
little more than a shrub. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves similar to chestnut 
but smaller (3 to 6 inches long), usually hairy below; 
nut rounded and enclosed in a small bur 1 to 1 1 / 2 inches 
in diameter; twigs usually hairy. 

WOOD: Light, hard, strong, coarse-grained, dark brown. 

USES: Fence posts, rails, railroad ties. The nuts are 
edible but are usually wormy. 

DISTRIBUTION: Occurring in the upland woods on dry, 
sandy soil, on rich hillsides or on the borders of swamps; 
found generally throughout the state except near the 
coast; probably most abundant in the mountains. This 
tree is also being attacked by the chestnut blight. 

38 



WHITE OAK 
(Quercus alba L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 5 to 9 
inches long, 2 to 4 inches wide, deeply divided by 7 to 
11 finger-like, rounded lobes, light green and smooth 
i above, pale and smooth below. Fruit an oblong, shiny, 
about 3/4 inch long, green when fully grown, becoming 
light, chestnut brown, in a deep, saucer-shaped cup; 
maturing in one season; kernel not bitter. Bark light 
gray, ridged or flaky. A tree 80 to 100 feet high with a 
trunk 3 to 4 feet in diameter, tall and naked in the for- 
est, short in the open and terminating in a broad, 
rounded head of spreading branches. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves deeply divided by 7 
to 11 finger-like, rounded lobes; bark light gray, ridged 
or flaky; acorn oblong, shiny, about 1/3 enclosed by the 
cup. 

WOOD: Hard, heavy, very strong, durable, light brown. 

USES: One of the most valuable hardwoods. Used for 
furniture, mill work, tight cooperage, veneer, car con- 
struction, crossties, handles, agricultural implements, 
fence posts, fuel. 

DISTRIBUTION: Makes its best growth on rich uplands 
or on moist bottom lands and is found throughout the 
state except near the coast; more abundant in the pied- 
mont and lower mountains. 

39 



POST OAK 
(Que re us stellata Wang.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 4 to 5 
inches long, 3 to 4 inches wide, deeply 5 lobed with 
broad, rounded divisions, the lobes broadest at the ends; 
thick and somewhat leathery, dark green and shiny a- 
bove, lighter green and rough hairy below. Fruit an ob- 
long, blunt acorn, maturing in one season, V2 to 3/4 inch 
long, hairy or nearly smooth, the cup covering about % 
to 1/3 of the acorn; kernel not bitter. Bark dark gray, 
finely checked, often with long, horizontal fissures on 
old trees. A tree usually 50 to 60 feet high, with a trunk 
2 to 3 feet in diameter, terminating in a broad, dense, 
round-topped head, composed of stout, spreading, rather 
crooked branches. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves cross-shaped in out- 
line; bark dark gray, finely checked; branches crooked 
and twigs hairy. 

WOOD: A white oak. Very heavy, hard, close-grained, 
durable in contact with the soil, difficult to season, 
light or dark brown. 

USES: Fence posts, railroad ties, slack cooperage, 
general construction, fuel. Lumber often has many 
small knot clusters. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found on dry, gravelly or sandy up-» 
lands, reaching its largest size on rich soils, occurring 
generally throughout the state. 



40 



OVERCUP OAK 
(Que reus I y rata Walt.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 3 to 7% 
inches long, up to 4 3/4 inches wide, broadest above the 
middle, narrowed toward the base with 5 to 9 sharp 
pointed, sometimes rounded lobes, without bristles, 
broadly separated; dark green and smooth above, silvery 
white and hairy, or green and nearly smooth below. 
Fruit an egg-shaped acorn with a broad flat base, Vz to 
nearly all the acorn which remains in it permanently. 
Bark gray and broken into thick, scaly plates. A tree 50 
to 75 feet high with a trunk 2 to 3 feet in diameter, 
generally divided 15 to 20 feet above the ground into 
comparatively small drooping branches forming a sym- 
metrical round-topped head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Acorn almost or completely 
enclosed by cup. 

WOOD: A white oak. A heavy, hard, strong, tough, 
very durable in contact with the soil, rich, dark brown 
(similar to that of white oak). Logs often have a large 
amount of grub holes and other defects. 

USES: The same as that of white oak. 

DISTRIBUTION: Confined to stream bottoms and rich 
low grounds, plentiful in the deeper swamps of the 
coastal plain and occurring in the Piedmont as far 
inland as Carroll, Gwinnett, and Oglethorpe Counties. 

41 



CHESTNUT OAK 
(Quercus prinus L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 4 to 9 
inches long, V/2 to 3 inches wide, oblong, tapering at 
each end, often broadest above the middle; margin 
scalloped or wavy; dark green and shiny above, paler 
and slightly hairy below. Fruit an egg-shaped, shiny 
acorn, 1 to V/2 inches long, enclosed for 1/3 to V2 its 
length by a thin cup; kernel not bitter. Bark grayish 
brown to darker, on older trees very deeply and coarsely 
furrowed. A tree 60 to 70 feet high with a trunk 3 to 4 
feet in diameter, generally divided 15 to 20 feet above 
the ground into large limbs, spreading into a broad 
irregular head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves somewhat similar to 
those of the chestnut; bark deeply and coarsely furrowed. 

WOOD: A white oak. Heavy, hard, strong, rather tough, 
close-grained, durable in contact with the soil. Logs 
often have a large amount of defect. 

USES: Fence posts, railroad ties, fuel. The bark was 
formerly a source of tannin. 

DISTRIBUTION: Confined to upland soils, preferring 
rocky ridges and bluffs; distributed generally over the 
upper Piedmont and mountains. 



42 



SWAMP CHESTNUT OAK 
(Que reus Michauxii Nutt.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 4 to 9 
inches long, 2 3/4 to 4% inches wide, oblong, tapering at 
both ends, broadest above the middle, margins scalloped 
or wavy; dark green, shiny and smooth above, pale green 
to silvery white and hairy below. Fruit a smooth, egg- 
shaped to oblong acorn, 1 to IV2 inches long and enclos- 
ed for not more than 1/3 of its length by a thick saucer- 
shaped cup; kernel edible. Bark silvery white or ashy 
gray, scaly. A tree usually 60 to 80 feet high with a tall 
trunk 2 to 3 feet in diameter, terminating in a round- 
topped, compact head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves similar to those of 
the chestnut but broader, especially above the middle, 
hairy below; bark silvery white to ashy gray, flaky. 

WOOD: A white oak. Heavy, hard, very strong, tough, 
close-grained, durable, easy to split, light brown. 

USES: All kinds of construction, agricultural imple- 
ments, wheels, cooperage, fence posts, baskets, and fuel. 
Same uses as white oak. 

DISTRIBUTION: A tree of the low grounds of the 
coastal plain, extending inland into the Piedmont; found 
as far north as Clarke County. 



43 



LIVE OAK 
(Quercus Virginian a Mill.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves evergreen (falling in the spring 
of their second season), 2 to 5 inches long, V* to 2 1 / 2 
inches wide, oblong and rounded; margins slightly rolled, 
occasionally toothed near the end; thick leathery, dark 
green, smooth and shiny on the upper surface, pale and 
hairy below. Fruit an oblong acorn about 3/4 inch long, 
dark, blackish brown in the exposed part, pale yellowish 
in the cup; cup covering 1/3 to V* the acorn; kernel not 
bitter. Bark dark brown tinged with red, slightly furrow- 
ed. A long lived tree 40 to 50 feet high with a trunk 3 to 
4 in diameter above its swollen base, usually dividing a 
few feet from the ground into 3 to 4 horizontal wide 
spreading limbs, forming a low, dense, round-topped 
head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves evergreen, thick, 
leathery and hairy below, margins slightly rolled; 
acorn enclosed in a cup for 1/3 to 1/2 its length. Tree 
has a distinct spreading appearance, although an up- 
right form occurs in some areas. 

WOOD: A red oak. Very heavy, hard, strong, tough, 
close-grained, light brown or yellow. Hardest and 
heaviest of Georgia's oaks. 

USES: Ornamental shade tree; Ga's Official State 
Tree; formerly used in ship-building because of its 
large size and great strength. 

DISTRIBUTION: Most abundant and reaches its best 
growth on rich hummocks, occurring near the coast 
and westward in the lower coastal plain. 

44 



NORTHERN RED OAK 
(Que re us rubra LJ 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 5 to 9 
inches long, 4 to 5 inches wide, with 7 to 1 1 rather 
short, 3 pointed, bristle-tipped lobes; dark green, dull 
and smooth above, pale yellow-green and smooth below. 
Fruit an egg-shaped acorn, gradually narrowed at each 
end, 2/3 to VA inches long, Vz to 2/3 inches thick, 
enclosed only at the base in a thick, saucer-shaped cup. 
Bark: on upper trunk smooth, dark brownish gray with 
rather conspicuous lighter gray, vertical streaks; on the 
lower trunk, dark grayish brown and divided into small, 
thick, scaly plates. A tree 70 to 80 feet high with a 
trunk 3 to 4 feet in diameter and stout ascending 
branches forming a broad head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves with short, bristle- 
tipped lobes, smooth above and mostly smooth below; 
acorn large and broad; bark on upper trunk smooth, 
dark brownish gray with conspicuous lighter gray 
vertical streaks. 

WOOD: Heavy, hard, strong, not as durable as that of 
the white oaks, light reddish brown. 

USES: Construction, interior finish of houses, furniture, 
fuel. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found generally on good soil and 
often near the edges of low grounds and along small 
streams. Most abundant in the mountains and Piedmont; 
rare in the coastal plain. 

45 



SOUTHERN RED OAK 
(Quercus falcata Michx.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 6 to 7 
inches long, 4 to 5 inches wide, with 3 to 5 sharply 
pointed, often curved, bristle-tipped lobes, the central 
lobe long and narrow, base of leaf distinctly rounded 
and often lop-sided; dark green and shiny above, rusty, 
hairy below. Fruit a short acorn about V2 inch long, 
bright orange-brown, enclosed for not more than one- 
third of its length in a flat cup; maturing at the end of 
its second season; kernel bitter. Bark dark brownish 
gray with narrow, shallow ridges. A tree 70 to 80 feet 
high with a trunk 2 to 3 feet in diameter, terminating in 
a broad, round-topped head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves with 3 to 5 sharply 
pointed, often curved, bristle-tipped lobes, the central 
lobe long and narrow, base of leaf distinctly rounded. 

WOOD: Hard, strong, coarse-grained, light red. 



USES: Lumber, furniture and flooring; bark formerly a 
source of tannin. 

DISTRIBUTION: A common upland tree found through- 
out the State. 



46 



SHUMARD OAK (Shumard Red Oak) 
(Quercus shumardii Buckley) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 4% to 6Y2 
inches long and 4 1 / 2 to 5 1/5 inches wide with 7 to 9 
bristle-tipped, deeply divided lobes; dark green, smooth 
and shiny above, paler and smooth below except for 
tufts of hair in the axils of the veins. Fruit an egg-shaped 
acorn, 1 inch long and enclosed only at the base in thick, 
flat, saucer-shaped cup. Bark on branches and upper 
trunk smooth, on older trunks broken into pale ridges 
separated by rough, dark colored furrows. A tree some- 
times 1 00 feet high with a trunk 3 to 4 feet in diameter, 
terminating in an open, wide-spreading head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves shiny, 5 to 7-lobed 
and with clusters of hair in the axils of the veins on the 
under side; cup of fruit saucer-shaped. 

WOOD: Heavy, hard, close-grained, light reddish brown. 

USES: Similar to thsoe of Southern red oak. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found on moist fertile soil near 
streams; more typical of the coastal plain, but extending 
into the Piedmont as far as Oglethorpe County. 

47 



BLACK OAK 
(Que re us velutina Lamb.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 5 to 8 
inches long, 3 to 5 inches wide, 5 to 9 short or long, 
bristle-tipped lobes; thick and leathery, dark green and 
shiny above, yellow-green, brown or dull copper-color 
and usually hairy below. Fruit a large, light red-brown, 
broad acorn, 2/3 to 7/8 inch long, 1 / 2 to % inch thick, 
hairy, enclosed for half or more of its length in a thin 
cup. Bark on young trunk and branches smooth, dark 
brown, becoming on old trunks deeply divided into 
broad, rounded ridges, broken on the surface into dark 
brown or nearly black, plate-like scales; inner bark deep 
orange color. A tree 70 to 80 feet high with a trunk 3 to 
4 feet in diameter, slender branches spreading gradually 
into a narrow, open head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves mostly hairy below; 
acorn enclosed for Ya or more of its length in a thin cup; 
bark dark brown or nearly black and deeply divided into 
broad rounded ridges; inner bark deep orange color. 

WOOD: A red oak. Heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, 
bright brown tinged with red. 

USES: Lumber and fuel. 

DISTRIBUTION: An upland tree found throughout the 
State. 

48 



WILLOW OAK 
(Quercus phellos L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, VA to 5 1 / 2 
inches long, 1/3 to 1 inch wide, narrow, pointed at both 
ends, willow-like, margins smooth, a bristle on the tip; 
light green, smooth and shiny above, dull, paler and 
usually smooth below. Fruit a small, nearly spherical or 
egg-shaped acorn about 1/3 inch thick, hairy, only the 
base enclosed in a shallow flattened cup, maturing at the 
end of the second season. Bark dark gray, generally 
smooth but on old trunks shallowly separated into 
irregular plates. A tree 70 to 90 feet high with a trunk 
about 2 feet in diameter, terminating in a narrow, open 
or conical, round-topped head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves pointed at both 
ends, willow-like; winter buds sharp pointed, slender, 
smooth. 



WOOD: A red oak. Heavy, strong, not hard, coarse- 
grained, light brown tinged with red. 

USES: Lumber. Planted widely as a shade tree. 

DISTRIBUTION: A common tree of the flats and low 
grounds of the coastal plain and extending sparingly 
into the Piedmont, found as far north as Clarke and 
Oglethorpe Counties. 



49 



WATER OAK 
(Quercus nigra L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in winter, usually 
about 2 1 / 2 inches long and 1 1 / 2 inches wide, narrowed at 
the base, broader at the rounded, often 3-lobed, tip; dull 
bluish green and smooth above, paler and smooth below 
except for tufts of hair in the axils of the larger veins. 
Fruit an almost spherical acorn with a flat base, 1/3 to 
2/3 inch long, light yellow-brown, hairy, enclosed only 
at the base in a thin saucer-shaped cup; kernel bitter; 
maturing in 2 seasons. Bark gray-black, close; often with 
irregular patches, on older trunks with rough, wide, 
scaly ridges. A tree 70 to 80 feet high with a trunk 2 to 
3 feet in diameter, terminating in a symmetrical, round 
topped head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves not deciduous until 

winter, about 2Ya inches long, narrowed at the base, 

broader at the rounded, often 3-l.obed tip; winter buds 

blunt, hairy. 

WOOD: A red oak. Heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, 

light brown. 

USES: One of the main red oak lumber species and also 

widely planted as an ornamental. 

DISTRIBUTION: A stream bank and low ground tree; 
found throughout the coastal plain and most of the 
Piedmont. 

50 



LAUREL OAK 
(Quercus lauri folia Michx.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in early spring of the 
second season, usually 3 to 4 inches long, and about % 
inch wide, elliptic, narrowed at both ends, margins 
smooth; green, shiny and smooth above, light green, less 
shiny and smooth below. Fruit an egg-shaped or some- 
times hemispherical dark brown to nearly black acorn 
about V2 inch long, % or less enclosed in a thin, saucer- 
shaped cup, maturing at the end of the second season. 
Bark dark brown and smooth on young stems, on older 
trunks becoming black, divided by deep furrows into 
broad, flattened ridges. A tree occasionally 100 feet high 
with a trunk 3 to 4 feet in diameter, terminating in a 
broad, dense, round-topped head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves elliptic with entire 
margins, falling in the spring of the second season; bark 
«*on old trunks black and deeply furrowed. 

WOOD: A red oak. Heavy, very strong and hard, coarse- 
grained, checks badly in drying, dark brown tinged with 
red. 

USES: Of little value except for fuel; often used as an 
ornamental shade tree. 

DISTRIBUTION: Occurring on moist soils and along 
streams; restricted to the coastal plain. 



51 



SCARLET OAK 
(Quercus cocci nea Muench.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 3 to 6 
inches long, 2 1 / 2 to 4 inches wide, with 7 to 9 deeply 
divided, bristle-tipped lobes; thin, bright green, smooth 
and shiny above, paler and smooth below; stem or 
petiole round, VA to 2 1 / 2 inches in length and quite often 
reddish green. Fruit an oval to oblong acorn, V2 to 1 
inch long, 1/3 to 2/3 inch thick, light reddish brown, 
usually with 2 or more rings around the tip, Vz enclosed 
in a thick bowl-shaped cup; kernel bitter and nearly 
white. Acorn maturing at the end of its second season. 
Bark on mature trees dark brown to nearly black, 
broken into irregular ridges separated by shallow fissures. 
A tree 70 to 80 feet high with a trunk 2 to 3 feet in 
diameter terminating in a rather narrow open head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves with 7 to 9 widely 
separated, narrow, bristle-tipped lobes; acorn with 
usually 2 or more rings around the tip. 

WOOD: A red oak. Heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, 
light or reddish brown. 

USES: Similar to those of the other red oaks. 

DISTRIBUTION: Generally found on dry, sandy soils, 
occurring throughout the State but more abundant in 
the Piedmont and mountains; rare near the coast. 

52 



TURKEY OAK 
(Que reus laevis Walt.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 3 to 12 
inches long, 1 to 10 inches wide (usually about 5 inches 
long and wide), deeply divided into 3, 5 or 7 bristle- 
tipped lobes, the lateral lobes spreading and usually 
curved; thick, bright yellow-green, smooth and shiny 
above, paler, shiny and smooth below; petioles or stems 
very short. Fruit an oval, light brown, hairy acorn about 
1 inch long and % inch broad, enclosed for about 1/3 its 
length in a thin cup. Bark dark gray tinged with red on 
the surface, on old trunks nearly black (inner bark red), 
deeply and irregularly furrowed. A tree 20 to 30 feet 
high with a trunk usually less than 2 feet in diameter 
with stout, contorted branches forming an open, round- 
topped, irregular head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves with 3 to 5 deeply 
divided lobes, the laterals often curving; bark dark gray 
tinged with red, on old trunks nearly black, deeply 
furrowed into small squares. 



WOOD: A red oak. Heavy, hard, strong, coarse-grained, 
light reddish brown. 

USES: Of little value except for fuel. 

DISTRIBUTION: A tree characteristic of the sand hills 
and poor soils of the coastal plain. 

53 



BLACKJACK OAK 
(Quercus marilandica Muench.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 6 to 7 
inches long and broad, with 3 or rarely 5 very shallowly 
divided lobes much broadened at the outer end, thick, 
dark yellow-green, smooth and shiny above, yellow, 
orange, or brown and hairy below. Fruit a medium 
sized, oblong acorn, about % inch long, light yellow- 
brown, hairy, 1/3 to 2/3 of its length enclosed in a thick 
cup. Bark almost black, deeply divided into square 
plates. A tree 20 to 30 feet high with a trunk 1 foot in 
diameter with short, stout, often contorted branches 
forming a narrow, compact, round-topped or open head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves very shallowly lobed 
and much broadened at the outer end, somewhat re- 
sembling a cross section of a pear; bark almost black, 
deeply divided into square plates. 

WOOD: A red oak. Hard, heavy, strong, brittle, pale red. 

USES: Charcoal and fuel. 

DISTRIBUTION: Plentiful in poor or dry soils from the 
coast to the mountains. 



54 



GEORGIA OAK 
(Quercus georgiana M. A. Curtis) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, about 
2 1 / 2 inches long and VA inches wide, with 3 to 5 broadly 
separated, smooth margined or toothed lobes; bright 
green and shiny above, paler and smooth below except 
for tufts of hair in the axils of the veins. Fruit a light 
red-brown, shiny acorn, 1/3 to !4 inch long, seated in a 
shallow cup. Bark dark gray tinged with red, irregularly 
furrowed. A tree seldom reaching a height of 25 feet, 
more often a shrub only a few feet in height. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves small with 3 to 5 
usually toothed lobes; acorn seated in a shallow cup. 

WOOD: A red oak. Heavy, strong, hard, light brown. 

USES: Not of sufficient size to be of any commercial 
use. 

DISTRIBUTION: Occurring only in Georgia and re- 
stricted to a few granite hills including Stone Mountain, 
Little Stone Mountain, and others in Jackson, Polk and 
Meriwether Counties. 



55 



BLUEJACKOAK 
(Quercus incana Bart.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 2 to 3 
inches long and 1 / 2 to VA inches wide, oblong and pointed 
at each end with smooth margins; blue-green and shiny 
above, pale and hairy below. Fruit a small acorn, up to 
V2 inch long, hairy at the tip and enclosed only at the 
base or for 1 / 2 its length in a thin, saucer-shaped cup. 
Bark divided into thick, nearly square plates, covered by 
small, dark brown or nearly black scales. A tree on dry 
hills, 15 to 20 feet high with a trunk 5 to 6 inches in 
diameter, but reaching a larger size on moist soils. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves oblong with smooth 
margins, pale and hairy below; bark dark and divided 
into thick, nearly square plates. 

WOOD: Hard, strong, close-grained, light brown, tinged 
with red. 

USES: Occasionally used for fuel. 

DISTRIBUTION: Typical of the drier pine flats of the 
coastal plain; occasionally found in the lower Piedmont. 

56 



FAMILY ULMACEAE 

AMERICAN ELM 
(Ulmus americana L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 4 to 6 
inches long, 1 to 3 inches wide, elliptical and narrowed 
at the tip into a long point, margins coarsely and doubly 
toothed; lopsided at the base; dark green and smooth or 
slightly rough above, pale and soft-hairy or smooth 
below with a slender mid-rib and numerous slender, 
straight, parellel veins running to the points of the. 
teeth. Fruit flat, winged, with hairy margins, 1 / 2 inch 
long. Bark ashy gray and deeply divided into broad 
ridges. A tree sometimes 100 feet high with a trunk 
usually 2 to 4 feet in diameter but sometimes larger, 
dividing 30 to 40 feet from the ground into numerous 
upright branches, gradually spreading and forming a 
round-topped head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves elliptical, lopsided 
at the base, often rough on the upper surface and with 
parallel veins running to the teeth of the margin, head or 
crown symmetrical, shaped like an inverted cone. 

WOOD: Fairly hard, heavy, strong, very tough and 
difficult to split, coarse-grained, easily steamed and 
bent, light brown. 

USES: Barrel hoops, veneer baskets, wheel hoops, 
furniture, woodenware. 

DISTRIBUTION: Usually found on moist fertile soil 
near streams, found throughout the coastal plain and 
much of the Piedmont. 

57 



SLIPPERY ELM 
(Ulmus rubra Muhl.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 5 to 7 
inches long, 2 to 3 inches wide, elliptical and tapering to 
a long point at the tip, rounded and lopsided at the 
base, margins doubly toothed; thick, dark green and 
rough above, paler and hairy below. Fruit round or 
wedge-shaped, flat, winged, hairy. Bark dark brown and 
divided by shallow fissures and covered with large, thick, 
scales; inner bark mucilaginous. A tree 60 to 70 feet 
high with a trunk occasionally 2 feet in diameter, with 
spreading branches forming a broad, often flat-topped 
head. 



KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves 5 to 7 inches long 
tapering to a long point at the tip, rounded and lopsided 
at the base, rough on the upper surface, hairy below; 
winter buds dark brown and hairy; twigs hairy; inner 
bark mucilaginous. 

WOOD: Heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, easy to 
split, dark brown or red. 

USES: Fence posts, crossties, sills, wheel hubs, agri- 
cultural implements. 

DISTRIBUTION: Occurs on the banks of streams and 
low, rocky hillsides in deep, rich soils. Found chiefly in 
the lower mountains and coastal plain. 



58 



WINGED ELM 
(Ulmus alata Michx.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, about 2 
inches long and about 1 inch wide, oblong and tapering 
at each end, margins doubly toothed, thick, dark green 
and smooth above, pale and soft-hairy below. Fruit 
ripening before or with the opening of the leaves, oblong, 
1/3 inch long, winged, hairy. Bark light brown tinged 
with red and shallowly divided into flat ridges. A tree 
usually 40 to 50 feet high with a trunk 2 to 3 feet in 
diameter, terminating in an oblong round-topped head, 
the branchlets sometimes naked, more often furnished 
with two thin, corky wings about % inch wide. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves small for an elm (2 
inches in length). Fruit ripening with or before the open- 
ing of the leaves, red in color, branchlets often furnished 
with corky wings. 

WOOD: Heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, difficult 
to split, light brown. 

USES: Wheel hubs, tool handles, often used as an 
ornamental shade tree. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found usually on dry, gravelly up- 
lands, less commonly along the borders of swamps and 
along banks of streams, occurring throughout the State 
except in high mountains. 

59 



SUGARBERRY 
(Celtis laevigata Willd.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 2 1 / 2 to 5 
inches long, % to VA inches wide, oblong and tapering 
to a point at the tip, rounded and lopsided at the base; 
margins usually smooth but sometimes toothed at the 
tip; thin, light green, smooth or rarely rough above, 
light green and smooth below. Fruit a nutlet % inch in 
diameter on a smooth stem usually less than !4 inch 
long. Bark pale gray, smooth except for numerous, 
corky warts. A tree 60 to 80 feet high with a trunk 2 to 
3 feet in diameter, terminating in a broad head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaf margins usually smooth; 
fruit borne on a stem less than Ya inch long; bark pale 
gray, smooth except for numerous cocky warts. Sim- 
ilar to hackberry. 

WOOD: Soft, not strong, close-grained, light yellow. 

USES: Fence posts, cheap furniture. 

DISTRIBUTION: Restricted largely to the coastal plain 
where it occurs in wet, swampy places or along streams. 
Occasionally found in the Piedmont and occasionally 
used as an ornamental. 

60 



GEORGIA HACKBERRY 
(Celtis tenuifolia Nutt) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, VA to 2 1 / 2 
inches long and % to V/ 2 inches wide, ovate, pointed at 
the tip, rounded at the base, margins usually toothed; 
thin, dark green and rough above, pale and more or less 
hairy below. Fruit spherical, about % inch thick, on 
short stems, reddish purple. Bark dark gray, warty. A 
tree occasionally 30 feet high with a trunk 10 to 12 
inches in diameter but more usually a shrub with 
irregular branches. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves ovate, roughened on 
the upper surface; fruit dark orange-red, on a stem 
shorter than the leaf petiole. 

WOOD: Soft, not strong, close-grained, light yellow. 

USES: Not of sufficient size to be of any commercial 
use. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found usually on hillsides and oc- 
curring in the Piedmont and lower mountains. Often 
found in hedge rows. 

61 



FAMILY MORACEAE 
RED MULBERRY 
(Moras rubra L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 3 to 5 
inches long, 2 1 / 2 to 4 inches wide, oval, usually con- 
tracted into a long point at the tip; margins toothed, 
sometimes deeply divided into 2 or 3 lobes, thin, dark 
bluish green, smooth or slightly roughened above, pale 
and hairy below. Fruit a multiple fruit resembling a 
"blackberry," 1 to 1% inches long, black, sweet and 
juicy when ripe. Bark dark brown, divided into irregular 
elongated plates. A tree 60 to 70 feet high with a trunk 
3 to 4 feet in diameter, with stout, spreading branches, 
forming a dense, broad, round-topped head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves 3 to 5 inches long, 
2 1 /2 to 4 inches wide, oval; fruit resembling a 
"blackberry," twig when broken shows fine, silky hairs 
on the broken surfaces. 

WOOD: Light, soft, not strong, rather tough, coarse- 
grained, light orange colored. Heartwood very durable. 

USES: Fence posts, cooperage, ship building. 

DISTRIBUTION: A rather scarce tree of fertile valleys 
and hillsides throughout the State. 

62 



FAMILY MAGNOLIACEAE 

CUCUMBERTREE (Cucumber Tree) 
(Magnolia acuminata L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 6 to 10 
inches long, 4 to 6 inches wide, elliptic, sharp pointed 
at the tip, rounded at the base, margins smooth; 
yellow-green and smooth above, whitish, hairy or 
smooth below. Fruit a small brown cone, 1 to 3 inches 
long, resembling a cucumber, the small seed, red in 
color, hanging out on delicate, white strings. Bark dark 
brown, furrowed and covered by numerous, thin scales. 
A tree 80 to 90 feet high with a trunk 3 to 4 feet in 
diameter, terminating in a pyramidal head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves 6 to 10 inches long, 
4 to 6 inches broad; fruit a small, brown cone resembling 
a cucumber; twigs smooth; terminal buds !4 to % inch 
long, silvery, silky. 

WOOD: Light, soft, not strong, close-grained, durable, 
light yellow-brown. 

USES: Occasionally manufactured into lumber. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found on the moist, deep, fertile 
soils of the coves and lower slopes of the mountains, 
rarely extending into the Piedmont. 

63 



SOUTHERN MAGNOLIA (Evergreen Magnolia) 
(Magnolia grandiflora L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves evergreen, 5 to 10 inches long, 

2 to 3 inches wide, elliptical, pointed at both ends, 
margins smooth; bright green, glossy, smooth and 
leathery above, rusty hairy or sometimes green and 
smooth below. Fruit an egg-shaped, reddish brown bur, 

3 to 4 inches long, 1 1 / 2 to 2 1 / 2 inches thick with the 
numerous bright red seeds dangling on slender threads. 
Bark gray to brown or almost black, smooth on the 
upper trunk becoming somewhat scaly. A tree 60 to 80 
feet high with a trunk 2 to 3 feet (sometimes up to 5 
feet) in diameter terminating in a spreading, pyramidal 
head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves evergreen, 5 to 10 
inches long, 2 to 3 inches wide; flower large, fragrant; 
fruit a reddish brown bur. 

WOOD: Hard, heavy, creamy white, but turning brown 
on exposure. 

USES: Baskets, crates. This tree is largely used as an 
ornamental. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found in swamps and along streams 
near the coast. 



64 



UMBRELLA MAGNOLIA 
(Magnolia tripetala L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 10 to 20 
inches long and 3% to 9 inches wide, broad, oblong, 
broadest above the middle, bluntly pointed at the tip, 
and long-pointed at the base, margins smooth; bright 
green and smooth above, hairy or nearly smooth below. 
Fruit an oblong, red bur, 2 1 / 2 to 4 inches long. Bark light 
gray, smooth. A tree 30 to 40 feet high with a trunk 1 to 
VA feet in diameter and stout, contorted branches. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves large (18 to 20 
inches long), not lobed at the base; bark light gray and 
smooth. 

WOOD: Light, soft, close-grained, not strong, light 
brown. 

USES: Wood of no commercial use. Tree sometimes 
used as an ornamental. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found near streams and in rich, 
damp soils, in the mountains and upper Piedmont. 

65 



FRASER MAGNOLIA (Mountain Magnolia) 
(Magnolia fraseri Walt.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 10 to 12 
inches long, 6 to 7 inches wide, broadest toward the tip 
with two ear-like lobes at the base, margins smooth; 
bright green and smooth on both surfaces, clustered at 
the ends of the branches. Fruit an oblong, smooth, 
bright red bur resembling a cucumber, 4 to 5 inches 
long, 1 1 / 2 to 2 inches thick, bearing many scarlet seeds. 
Bark grayish brown, smooth. A tree 30 to 40 feet high 
with a trunk 12 to 22 inches in diameter, often separat- 
ing near the ground into several stout limbs, branches 
wide-spreading and often contorted. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves 10to 12 inches long, 
broadest near the tip and with two ear-like lobes at the 
base. 

WOOD: Light, soft, close-grained, not strong, light 
brown. 

USES: Wood of little value, tree sometimes used as an 
ornamental. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found on moist soils usually near 
streams and largely restricted to the mountains; rare in 
the Piedmont. 

66 



SWEETBAY 
(Magnolia virginiana LJ 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in the spring of the 
second season, 4 to 6 inches long, VA to 3 inches wide, 
oblong ,and mores or less rounded at the tip; margins 
smooth; bright green, shiny and smooth on the upper 
surface, pale or nearly white and hairy below. Fruit a 
small bur, VA to 2 inches long, dull or brownish red or 
nearly green at maturity. Bark light gray and smooth. A 
tree 30 to 40 feet high with a trunk VA to 2 feet in 
diameter, terminating in a narrow-topped head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves oblong, dark green 
and shiny above, whitish and hairy below, semi-ever- 
green; bark light gray and smooth. 

WOOD: Soft; light brown tinged with red. 

USES: Wood of little commercial value. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found on moist soil and in swamps 
throughout the coastal plain and extending into the 
Piedmont as far as Gwinnett County. 

67 



YELLOW-POPLAR 
(Lirodendron tulipifera L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 5 to 6 
inches long and wide, mostly 4 lobed with a rounded 
base, dark green, smooth and shiny on the upper surface, 
pale and smooth below. Fruit a narrow, light brown, 
upright "cone," 2 to 3 inches long, made up of a number 
of seeds, each enclosed in a 4-sided, bony coat and 
provided with a wing. Bark on young trees, dark green 
and smooth, on older trunks gray and closely ridged. A 
tree 100 feet high with a trunk 4 to 6 feet in diameter 
(sometimes 200 feet high and 12 feet in diameter), 
terminating high above the ground in a narrow, pyra- 
midal head. 



KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves mostly 4 lobed, fruit 
a narrow, upright, light brown "cone," 2 to 3 inches 
long, remaining on the tree after the leaves have fallen; 
flower tulip-like. 

WOOD: Light, soft, sometimes brittle, easily worked, 
light yellowish or greenish brown. 

USES: Furniture, musical instruments, molding, picture 
frames, plywood, veneer core, vehicle parts, construc- 
tion lumber; flake board. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found usually on deep, rich, rather 
moist soils and occurring throughout the State. 



68 



FAMILY LAURACEAE 

SASSAFRAS 
(Sassafras al bid urn (Nutt.) Nees) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 4 to 6 
inches long, 2 to 4 inches wide, elliptical with smooth 
margins; mitten-shaped or 3-lobed; dark green and 
smooth above, hairy below. Fruit blue, berry-like, 
seated in a red cup on a red stalk. Bark dark, red-brown, 
deeply and roughly furrowed. A tree up to 90 feet high 
with a trunk about 2 feet in diameter (often little more 
than a shrub), terminating in a narrow, flat-topped head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves of three shapes; 
fruit blue, seated in a red cup on a red stalk; leaves and 
twigs aromatic. Usually a bush or small tree. 

WOOD: Soft, weak, brittle, coarse-grained, very durable 
in contact with the soil, aromatic, dull orange-brown. 

USES: Fence posts, boats, cooperage, furniture. Oil of 
sassafras is used to perfume soap. A spicy tea is made 
from the roots. 

DISTRIBUTION: Typical of abandoned fields, on dry 
soil; occurring throughout the State. 

69 



FAMILY HAMAMELIDACEAE 

SWEETGUM (Red Gum) 
(Liquidambar styraciflua L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 4 to 6 
inches long and wide, star-shaped, margins finely tooth- 
ed, bright green, smooth and shiny on both surfaces; 
fragrant when crushed. Fruit a round, prickly head, 
attached to a long stem. Bark grayish brown, divided 
into narrow ridges. A tree 80 to 140 feet high with a 
trunk 4 to 5 feet in diameter, terminating in a typical 
pyramidal head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves star-shaped, fragrant 
when crushed; fruit a round prickly head; branchlets 
usually winged with corky growths. 

WOOD: Moderately hard, heavy, close-grained, not 
strong, often cross-grained, difficult to season, reddish 
brown. 

USES: Furniture, veneer packages/ pulp, boxes and 
crates, interior finish, plywood, pianos, cooperage, 
flake board. 

DISTRIBUTION: A typical bottom-land species but 
occasionally found on hillsides or on rich moist soil. 
Occurring throughout the coastal plain and Piedmont 
and extending into the mountains where it is found 
sparingly at low elevations. 



70 



FAMILY PLATANACEAE 

AMERICAN SYCAMORE 
(Platanus occidentalis L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 4 to 8 
inches long and wide, more or less round in outline 
with many irregular lobes and teeth; wooly when young 
but at maturity, bright green and smooth above, paler 
and smooth below except on the veins. Fruit a brownish 
ball about 1 inch in diameter, composed of many hairy 
seeds, attached to a long stem. Bark on young stems 
creamy white with loose, scattered, brown scales or 
plates, becoming on old trunks somewhat darker *and 
more roughened. A tree often 100 feet high with a 
trunk 3 to 8 feet in diameter, terminating in an open, 
spreading head. Young trees can grow extremely fast. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Bark creamy or greenish 
white, scaling off in thin, scattered, brown plates. 

WOOD: Moderately heavy, hard, strong, tough, difficult 
to season. 

USES: Butchers blocks, furniture, woodenware, panel 
stock, cooperage, veneer, musical instruments, etc. 

DISTRIBUTION: A typical stream bank species, found 
throughout the State except in the higher mountains. 

71 



FAMILY ROSACEAE 

DOWNY SERVICEBERRY (Service Berry) 
(Amelanchier arborea (Michx. f.) Fern.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 2 to 4 
inches long, 1 to 2 inches wide, egg-shaped at the base; 
margins toothed; yellowish green and smooth on the 
upper surface, at first whitish and hairy below but later 
becoming pale green and nearly smooth. Fruit borne in 
clusters, round, about % to 2/3 inches in diameter, dry, 
reddish purple, sweetish, scarcely edible. Bark dark, 
ashy-gray, divided by shallow fissures into long ridges. A 
tree occasionally 20 to 50 feet high with a trunk % to 
VA feet in diameter (often little more than a shrub), 
terminating in a narrow, round-topped head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves small, egg-shaped, 
with a sharp tip and usually heart-shaped base; winter 
buds tinged with brown, slender, % to 1 inches long. 

WOOD: Heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, dark brown. 

USES: Occasionally used for tool handles. The tree 
makes an attractive ornamental. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found at times on dry, exposed hill- 
sides, but more often near streams; occurring throughout 
the State. 

72 



BLACK CHERRY 
(Prunus serotina Ehrh.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 2 to 6 
inches long, 1 to VA inches wide, oval to oblong and 
pointed at each end; margins finely toothed; dark green, 
smooth and shiny above, paler and smooth below. Fruit 
in clusters, spherical, 1/3 to 1 / 2 inch in diameter, black, 
juicy, sweet, edible when ripe. Bark dark, red-brown, on 
young trunks smooth, on old trunks scaly. A tree some- 
times 1 00 feet high with a trunk 4 to 5 feet in diameter, 
terminating in a narrow, oblong head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves and bark bitter, 
aromatic; fruit in clusters, spherical, black, juicy, edible. 

WOOD: Light, strong, rather hard, straight-grained, with 
a satiny surface, light brown or red. 

USES: Furniture, interior finish, musical instruments, 
woodenware, electrotype and engraving blocks, tool 
handles, gun stocks, turnery, etc. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found throughout the State but mak- 
ing its best growth on the deep, rich soils of the moun- 
tain coves. 

73 



HAWTHORNE 
(Crataegus species) 




NOTE: Due to the number of different species repre- 
sented in the state, their similarity and relative lack of 
importance, a general description of the group is given 
here. 



DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 1 to 2 
inches long, mostly oval or wedge-shaped with variously 
lobed or notched margins; more often smooth on both 
surfaces but on some species hairy below. Fruit globular 
to oblong, often somewhat like a small apple, % to % 
inch in diameter, usually red, often sweet and edible. 
Bark generally thin, gray, reddish gray, or dark brown, 
usually smooth on young trunks but on old trunks 
broken into thin, narrow scales. A tree seldom more 
than 20 to 25 feet high, with a trunk not over 1 foot in 
diameter, usually only a small shrub, often muscular and 
twisted, the branchlets usually armed with sharp spurs 
or thorns. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves small, variously 
lobed or notched; fruit smooth, red or yellow, apple- 
like; branchlets usually armed with spurs or thorns. 

WOOD: Strong, tough, heavy, hard. 

USES: Wood of little or no value; fruit sometimes used 
for jellies, furnishes food for birds. Some species have 
value as ornamentals. 



DISTRIBUTION: 
the State. 



Various species found throughout 



74 



FAMILY LEGUMINOSAE 

HONEYLOCUST 
(Gleditsia triacanthos L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 7 to 8 
inches long, once or twice compound with many small 
leaflets !4 to V/2 inches long, each pointed or rounded 
at the tip; dark green above, lighter below. Fruit a long 
flat, many-seeded, black pod up to 16 inches long with 
a small amount of edible pulp. Bark nearly black, at first 
smooth, later scaly-ridged, usually with clusters of large 
many-branched thorns. A tree 70 to 80 feet high and 
2 to 3 feet in diameter, with a short trunk and an open 
narrow or spreading crown. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves compound; twigs, 
branches and trunk armed with long straight brown, 
shiny, branched thorns. 

WOOD: Hard, strong, coarse-grained, very durable in 
contact with the soil, bright red-brown. 

USES: Fence posts, wheel hubs, ties, construction. 

DISTRIBUTION: Typical of old fields, ditch-banks and 
the borders of streams, it occurs throughout the State 
except in the higher mountains. 

75 



BLACK LOCUST 
(Robin ia pseudoacacia L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 8 to 14 
inches long, compound, with 7 to 19 oval leaflets, each 
VA to 2 inches long and Vz to % inch wide, dull, dark 
blue-green smooth above, pale and smooth below ex- 
cept along the midrib. Fruit a bright red-brown pod, 
3 to 4 inches long, V2 inch wide. Bark light brown, thin, 
slightly furrowed. A tree 50 to 60 feet high with a trunk 
1 to 2 feet in diameter, terminating in a narrow oblong 
head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves compound; fruit a 
flat pod 3 to 4 inches long; twigs and branchlets armed 
at the nodes with a pair of short unbranched spines, less 
than 1 inch in length. 

WOOD: Heavy, hard and strong, close-grained, Heart- 
wood very durable in contact with the soil, brown or 
greenish yellow. 

USES: Fence posts, insulator pins, ship building, wagon 
hubs, mine props, etc. 

DISTRIBUTION: Usually found on slopes and most 
abundant in the mountains, however, occurring sparingly 
in the Piedmont where it is becoming more widely 
naturalized. 

76 



EASTERN REDBUD 
(Cere is canadensis L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 3 to 5 
inches long and about as broad; heart-shaped, with 
smooth margins; green and smooth above, smooth or 
slightly hairy below. Fruit a small pod 272 to 3 1 /2 inches 
long, pink or rose color, maturing the latter part of May 
but not falling until early winter. Bark red-brown, 
smooth. A tree 25 to 50 feet high with a trunk having a 
diameter of 6 to 12 inches terminating in a wide, flat 
head; often little more than a shrub. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves heart-shaped; flow- 
ers bright purplish red, pea-shaped appear before leaves; 
fruit a small reddish pod. 

WOOD: Heavy, hard, not strong, close-grained, rich 
dark brown tinged with red. 

USES: Wood of no' commercial value. The tree is wide- 
ly planted as an ornamental. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found on fertile well drained soils on 
hillsides and in valleys throughout the State in the 
Piedmont, less so in the mountains and rare in the 
coastal plain. 

77 



FAMILY AQUIFOLIACEAE 

AMERICAN HOLLY 
(Ilex opaca Ait.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves evergreen, 2 to 4 inches long, 
elliptic, thick, with thickened margins armed with spiny 
teeth; dull yellow-green and smooth above, paler (often 
yellow), and smooth beneath. Fruit spherical, dull red or 
rarely yellow, % to V2 inch in diameter, persistent on the 
branches during the winter. Bark white or pale gray, 
smooth on young trunks, becoming roughened by wart- 
like growths. A tree 30 to 40 feet high with a trunk 1 to 
2 feet in diameter, terminating in a narrow, pyramidal 
head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves evergreen, thick, 
with spiny margins; fruit red, remaining on the branches 
during the winter. 

WOOD: Light, tough, not strong, close-grained, nearly 
white. 

USES: Cabinet work, wood-turning, engraver's blocks, 
inlaying, etc. The tree is widely planted as an ornamen- 
tal and the branches are used for Christmas decorations. 

DISTRIBUTION: Reaches its best growth on rich, moist 
soils, but also occurs in drier situations. Fairly common 
throughout the State. 

78 



YAUPON 
(Ilex vomitoria Ait.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves evergreen, 1 to 2 inches long 
and % to 1 inch wide, oval, margins with rounded 
teeth; leathery, dark green, shiny and smooth above pale 
and smooth below. Fruit a small, round, bright red 
berry about % inch in diameter, falling in the early win- 
ter or remaining on until spring. Bark light red-brown, 
covered with small, thin scales. A tree 20 to 25 feet 
high with a slender trunk rarely more than 6 inches in 
diameter with stout branchlets standing at right angles 
to the stem; often a tall shrub with numerous stems 
forming dense thickets. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves oval, small (1 to 2 
inches long), margins with rounded teeth; bark light 
red-brown. 

WOOD: Heavy, hard, close-grained, nearly white, turn- 
ing yellow with exposure. 

USES: Wood of no commercial value. The tree may be 
used as an ornamental. The young dried leaves, which 
contain caffeine, have been used as a substitute for tea. 
The Indians prepared a concoction from them which was 
used as a spring tonic. 

DISTRIBUTION: Confined to a narrow strip along the 
coast, where it occurs as a part of the tangled growth 
behind sand dunes. 

79 



DAHOON 
(Ilex cassine L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves evergreen, VA to 2 inches long 
and >2 to 1 inch wide, oblong, rounded at the tip and 
pointed at the base, margins smooth or spiny; thick, 
leathery, dark green and shiny above, pale and smooth 
below except along the midrib. Fruit a red berry about 
% inch thick, ripening in autumn and remaining on the 
tree until spring. Bark dark gray, almost smooth. A tree 
sometimes 25 to 30 feet high with a trunk 1 to VA feet 
in diameter, often a low shrub. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves evergreen and over 
twice as long as broad, margins smooth or spiny. 

USES: Wood of no commercial value. The tree may be 
used as an ornamental. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found on the margins of swamps and 
damp sand dunes near the coast in the southeastern part 
of the State. 

80 



FAMILY ACERACEAE 

CHALK MAPLE (Whitebark Maple) 
(Acer leucoderme Small) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, opposite 
on the twig, 2 to 3 1 /2 inches in diameter, deeply divided 
into 3 to 5 lobes and with a slightly heart-shaped base; 
thin, dark yellow-green and hairy beneath. Fruit a con- 
nected pair of small, light red-brown, winged seed (the 
wings about % to % inch long), ripening in the autunn. 
Bark of young stems, light gray and smooth, becoming 
near the base of old trunks dark brown or nearly black 
and deeply furrowed. A tree 20 to 25 feet high with a 
trunk about 1 foot in diameter (often little more than a 
shrub), terminating in a compact, round-topped head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves small, usually 3- 
lobed, thin and hairy beneath, with smooth petioles. 

WOOD: Strong, hard, close-grained, tough. 

USES: Wood of little value due to the small size of the 
tree. 

DISTRIBUTION: A hillside tree of the Piedmont. 
Common in Richmond, Floyd, Walker, Clarke and 
Oglethorpe Counties. 

81 



RED MAPLE 
(Acer rubrum L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, opposite 
on the twig, VA to 6 inches long and slightly less wide, 
deeply divided into 3 to 5 lobes, the margins of which 
are toothed; Light green and smooth on the upper sur- 
face, pale and smooth or only slightly hairy below; 
stems or petioles red. Fruit usually red, often pale 
yellow, paired or double, both appearing on one stem 3 
to 4 inches long, each seed with a wing about 1 inch 
long, ripening in the spring. Bark of young stems and 
branches light gray, on old trunks breaking up into 
long, narrow, scaly plates, separated by shallow fissures. 
A tree 50 to 70 feet high with a long trunk 1 to 2 feet in 
diameter, terminating in an irregular or rounded head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves green above, silvery 
below, lobes toothed on the margin, petioles or stems 
red, twigs dark red, shiny, odorless; buds blunt. 

WOOD: Fairly hard, strong but brittle, close-grained. 
A soft maple. 

USES: Interior finish, flooring, veneer, furniture, boxes, 
crates, crossties, woodenware, slack cooperage. 

DISTRIBUTION: Occurs throughout the State, being 
found in the valleys and on hillsides in the Piedmont and 
mountains and in swamps and low ground in the coastal 
plain. 

82 



FLORIDA MAPLE (Southern Sugar Maple) 
(Acer barbatum Michx.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, opposite 
on the twig, 1 1 / 2 to 3 inches long and broad, with 3 to 5, 
shallowly separated, rounded lobes; dark green, smooth 
and shiny above, pale and hairy below; petioles or stems 
usually hairy. Fruit small, green, often slightly hairy, 
with spreading wings 3/8 to % inch long. Bark of the 
trunk smooth, pale, becoming on old trees dark and 
deeply furrowed. A tree 40 to 50 feet high with a trunk 
1 to 2 feet in diameter, and small, erect, spreading 
branches. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves with 3 to 5 shallowly 
separated, rounded lobes, hairy below; petioles or stems 
usually hairy. 

WOOD: Heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, tough, light 
brown, tinged with red. 

USES: Wood of little commercial value.. The tree often 
planted for shade. 

DISTRIBUTION: Occurring on river banks and in low 
wet woods of the coastal plain and lower Piedmont, 
being found as far north as Clarke and Oglethorpe 
Counties. 

83 



BOXELDER 
(Acer negundo L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, opposite 
on the twig, 5 to 8 inches long, compound, with 3 to 5 
pointed leaflets, each coarsely toothed above the middle 
and rounded at the base, light green and smooth above, 
paler and smooth below except along the midrib. Fruit 
double or paired as in other maples, with hairy wings; 
hanging in clusters of several to the stem and often 
persistent after the leaves have fallen. Bark light brown 
with narrow, rounded ridges separated by shallow 
fissures: more deeply furrowed on old trees. A tree 60 to 
70 feet high with an irregular bole, terminating in a 
spreading head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves compound, resem- 
bling those of an ash; fruit persistent after the leaves 
have fallen; twigs green and shiny. 

WOOD: Light, soft, close-grained, weak, creamy white. 

USES: Wood of little value though occasionally used for 
fuel and as an ornamental. 

DISTRIBUTION: Occurring generally on moist, deep 
soils near streams and found throughout the State, 
though less common in the coastal plain and higher 
mountains than in the Piedmont. 

84 



FAMILY HIPPOCASTANACEAE 

PAINTED BUCKEYE (Georgia Buckeye) 
(Aesculus sylvatica Bartr.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, com- 
pound with 5 to 6 oblong, pointed, sharply toothed 
leaflets each 3 to 8 inches long and 1% to 3% inches 
wide, all set on the end of the leaf stems which are 4 1 / 2 
to 6 inches long; yellow-green and smooth and shiny 
below. Fruit a leathery, 3-celled and usually 3-seeded 
pod, 1 1/8 to 1 5/8 inches thick; seeds dark brown, 
about % inch thick. Bark dark brown separating on the 
surface into small, thin scales. A tree 25 to 30 feet high 
with a trunk 6 to 10 inches in diameter with slender, 
spreading branches; more often a shrub. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves compound with 
usually 5 leaflets arranged in a fan-shaped spray on the 
end of the stems; winter buds 1/3 to V2 inch long with 
light, reddish brown overlapping and tightly fitting 
scales. 

WOOD: Light, soft, close-grained, creamy white. 

USES: Usually not of sufficient size to be of any value. 

DISTRIBUTION: Typical of fertile hillsides and com- 
mon to the woods of the eastern part of the State. 



85 



FAMILY TILIACEAE 

WHITE BASSWOOD 
(Tilia heterophylla Vent.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 3 to 5 
inches long, 2 to 4 inches wide, broadly egg-shaped or 
sometimes almost heart-shaped, margins finely toothed, 
dark green and smooth above, and covered with white 
or brownish hairs below. Fruit a dry, rounded pod, 1 to 
2 seeded, about 1/3 inch in diameter, covered with 
short, thick, brownish wool; attached in clusters to the 
narrow, leafy, flower bract. Bark on young trees green 
or grayish green, later breaking up into narrow, some- 
what scaly ridges. A tree 60 to 80 feet high with a trunk 
1/4 to 2Y2 feet in diameter, terminating in a broad, 
round-topped head with often pendulous branches. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves broadly ovate or 
heart-shaped; fruit in clusters and on a stalk that is 
fastened to a leaf-like bract. 

WOOD: Soft, light, weak, fine-grained, light brown. 

USES: Woodenware, picture frames, veneer, toys, 
trunks, pianos, excelsior, etc. 

DISTRIBUTION: Occurs on deep, moist soil and is 
found principally in the mountains and Piedmont. 



86 



FAMILY CORNACEAE 

WATER TUPELO 
(Nyssa aquatica L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 5 to 10 
inches long and 2 to 4 inches wide, long ovate with a 
long-pointed tip, margins smooth or coarsely toothed; 
thick, dark green, shiny and smooth on the upper 
surface, pale and hairy below. Fruit dark purple, large, 
about 1 inch long, one to the stem; flesh acid to the 
taste. Bark brownish gray, with scaly ridges. A tree 80 to 
100 feet high with a trunk 2 to 3 feet in diameter, 
usually much enlarged at the base, and terminating in a 
narrow oblong or pyramidal head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves large; margins often 
toothed; fruit large (1 inch long); base of trunk much 
enlarged. 

WOOD: Light, soft, tough, not strong, white. 

USES: Box boards, furniture, interior trim, crossties, 
pulp. 

DISTRIBUTION: Restricted to the lower coastal plain 
where it is usually found in river swamps. 

87 



BLACK TUPELO (Blackgum) 
(Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 2 to 5 
inches long, Vz to 3 inches wide, ovate, with smooth 
margins; thick, dark green and shiny above, pale and 
slightly hairy below, especially the midrib. Fruit dark 
blue, about % inch long, fleshy, sour and bitter, with an 
indistinctly ribbed, bony seed. Bark light brown, often 
tinged with red, deeply furrowed. A tree occasionally 
100 feet high with a trunk 3 to 4 feet in diameter, 
terminating in a flat-topped, or when crowded, some- 
times pyramidal head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves ovate and shiny 
above; winter buds mostly at the ends of short, lateral 
branches which are at right angles to the main branch; 
fruit dark blue, sour, stone indistinctly ribbed. 

WOOD: Heavy, soft, strong, tough, nc durable, light 
yellow or nearly white. 

USES: Box boards, furniture, interior trim, crossties, 
pulp. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found throughout the State, being 
restricted to the swamps in the coastal plain, but 
ascending the steep hillsides in the mountains. 

88 



SWAMP TUPELO (Swamp Blackgum) 
(Nyssa sylvatica var. bi flora (Walt.) Sarg.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, V/ 2 to 4 
inches long and % to V/2 inches wide, oblong, margins 
smooth; dark green, smooth and shiny on the upper 
surface, pale and smooth below. Fruit usually in pairs, 
dark blue, about 1/3 to V2 inch long, pulp surrounding a 
bony seed with prominent ribs. Bark gray and deeply 
furrowed. A tree seldom over 30 to 40 feet high with a 
much swollen base, gradually tapering upward and ter- 
minating in a narrow, pyramidal or round-topped head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: leaves narrow; fruit with a 
prominently ridged stone; bark gray. 

WOOD: Light, soft, not strong, difficult to split, nearly 
white. 



USES: Woodenware, boxes, crates, pulp. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found on the edges of small "ponds" 
and along streams in the coastal plain. 



FLOWERING DOGWOOD 
(Corn us florida L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 3 to 6 
inches long and 1 1 / 2 to 2 inches wide, opposite on the 
twig, oval and pointed at each end, margins toothed; 
thick, bright green and hairy on the upper surface, 
whitish and hairy below. Fruit bright red, shiny, about 
V2 inch long and % inch broad, fleshy with a bony seed. 
Bark brownish gray and broken into blocks or squares. 
A tree sometimes 40 feet high with a trunk 1 to V/2 feet 
in diameter with upright branches forming a bushy head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves opposite on the 
twig; flowers yellowish and surrounded by 4 large, 
white or pinkish bracts (flower leaves); fruit bright red, 
shiny, oblong; bark broken into small blocks. 

WOOD: heavy, very hard, strong, close-grained, light 
brown, tinged with red. 

USES: Shuttle blocks, pulleys, mallet heads, bobbin 
heads, golf club heads, handles, etc. Widely planted 
as an ornamental and has pink or red flowered varieties. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found on fertile, well-drained soils 
throughout the State. 

90 



FAMILY ERICACEAE 

SOURWOOD 
(Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC. 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 5 to 7 
inches long, 1% to 2 1 /2 inches wide, oblong and pointed 
at each end, margins finely toothed; dark green, shiny 
and smooth on the upper surface, paler and smooth 
below. Fruit a conical, dry capsule 1/3 to Vz inch long, 
hanging in drooping clusters, sometimes a foot in 
length. Bark smooth and reddish on young branches, 
becoming gray on old trunks and deeply furrowed. A 
tree 50 to 60 feet high with a trunk 1 to V/2 feet in 
diameter (usually smooth), with spreading branches 
forming an oblong, round-topped head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves long and slender 
with a sour taste, turning a distinctive bright red in 
autumn; the empty fruit capsule persisting on the 
tree until late in the autumn. 

WOOD: Heavy, hard, close-grained, brown, tinged with 
red. 

USES: Sometimes used for tool handles. Favored for 
production of sourwood honey. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found on fertile, well drained soil 
throughout the State but more abundant in the moun- 
tains and upper Piedmont. 



91 



FAMILY EBENACEAE 

PERSIMMON 
(Diospyros virginiana LJ 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous In autumn, 2 to 6 
inches long and 1 to 3 inches wide, ovate with a pointed 
tip and a rounded base, margins smooth; dark green and 
smooth above, light green and smooth below. Fruit 
pulpy, almost spherical, dull orange to reddish or 
purplish brown, % to 1 1 / 2 inches in diameter, edible. 
Bark dark gray and broken up into small blocks. A tree 
30 to 50 feet high with a trunk 1 to VA feet in diameter, 
with spreading branches forming a broad or narrow, 
round-topped head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Fruit pulpy, about 1 inch 
in diameter, edible; bark dark gray and broken up into 
small blocks. 

WOOD: Heavy, strong, hard, fine-grained, heartwood 
brown to black, sapwood whitish. 

USES: Shuttles, golf club heads, shoe lasts, etc. 

DISTRIBUTION: Occurs on light, well drained soil 
throughout the State, probably most plentiful in the 
upper coastal plain and lower Piedmont. 

92 



FAMILY STRACACAE 

CAROLINA SILVERBELL 
(Halesia Carolina LJ 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 3 to 5 
inches long and VA to 2 inches wide, elliptic, usually 
with a long point at the tip, margins finely toothed; 
dark yellow-green and smooth on the upper surface, 
pale and hairy below. Fruit a dry pod VA to 1% inches 
long, with 4 broad wings. Bark on branches and upper 
trunk almost smooth, light reddish brown, with longi- 
tudinal yellowish streaks; on older trunks, slightly 
ridged. A tree rarely 40 feet high with a short trunk 1 to 
Vh feet in diameter, often divided near the ground into 
several spreading stems forming a rounded head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Bark on branches and upper 
trunks reddish brown with longitudinal, yellowish 
streaks; flower bell-shaped, white, drooping; fruit 4- 
winged. 

WOOD: Light, soft, close-grained, light brown. 

USES: When large enough, cut for lumber and used as a 
substitute for cherry. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found on wooded slopes and the 
banks of streams; most abundant in the mountains and 
upper Piedmont, rare in the coastal plain. 



93 



FAMILY OLEACEAE 

WHITE ASH 
(F rax in us americana L.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 8 to 12 
inches long, opposite on the twig, compound with 5 to 
9 ovate to oval, pointed leaflets, margins smooth or 
finely toothed; dark green and smooth above, pale and 
smooth below. Fruit including the wing 3/8 to VA inches 
long, seeds short and plump, the wing pointed, oblong 
and notched at the end, 1/8 to % inch broad, not ex- 
tending down the sides of the seed. Bark ashy gray and 
furrowed into close, diamond-shaped areas, separated 
by narrow ridges. A tree 50 to 80 feet high with a trunk 
2 to 3 feet in diameter, with stout, upright branches, 
forming a narrow crown. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves compound, opposite 
on the twig; leaf scars nearly encircling the buds; wing of 
fruit not extending down the sides of the seed. 

WOOD: Heavy, hard, strong, close-grained, tough, brown. 

USES: Handles, vehicle parts, furniture, trunks, plywood, 
steering wheels, baseball bats, oars, etc. One of 
Georgia's most valuable hardwoods. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found on moist, fertile soil through- 
out the State; most abundant in the mountains and 
Piedmont. 



94 



GREEN ASH 
(Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, opposite 
on the twigs, 10 to 12 inches long, compound with 7 to 
9 narrow, elliptical leaflets, margins finely toothed; 
bright green, shiny and smooth above, smooth below 
except on the midrib. Fruit with a narrow wing, 1 to 2 
inches long, V* inch or less wide, the wing not extending 
along the sides of the seed. Bark brown tinged with red 
and slightly furrowed. A tree 40 to 60 feet high with a 
trunk 1 to 2 feet in diameter and slender, spreading 
branches, forming a compact head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaflets narrow, smooth be- 
low; leaf scars straight or only slightly notched on the 
upper edge. 

WOOD: heavy, hard, strong, brittle, coarse-grained, 
light brown. 

USES: Similar to those of white ash but the wood is of 
poorer quality. 

DISTRIBUTION: Occurring in low, rich, moist soil, 
near streams throughout the State except in the higher 
mountains. 

95 



FAMILY BIGNONIACEAE 

SOUTHERN CATALPA 
(Catalpa bignonioides Walt.) 




DESCRIPTION: Leaves deciduous in autumn, 4 to 12 
inches long, heart-shaped, with smooth margins; light 
green and smooth on the upper surface, pale and hairy 
below. Fruit a slender, cylindrical pod, 10 to 12 inches 
long, containing a number of small, winged seeds. Bark 
light brown tinged with red and separating on the sur- 
face into large, thin, irregular scales. A tree rarely 50 
feet high with a short trunk 1 to 2 feet in diameter, 
terminating in a broad head. 

KEY CHARACTERISTICS: Leaves large (4 to 12 inches 
long) heart-shaped; fruit a slender, cylindrical pod, 10 to 
12 inches long. 

WOOD: Not strong, coarse-grained, in contact with 
the soil, light brown. Heartwood durable. 

USES: Highly valued for fence posts; the leaves are 
attacked by a large, black caterpillar which is a favorite 
bait of fishermen. 

DISTRIBUTION: Found along streams and gullies 
throughout the State, but originally native only to the 
southwestern part. 

96 



1111 



3 ElOfi 0M441 331b 




' jt' AS 

v.. - / * * , V 



GEORGIA ^ 

3RESTRY, 






JOHN W. MIXON 
DIRECTOR 



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